The Level of Rubella Infection in Women with Recurrent Abortion

  • Mohammed Haider Hamad Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Al Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Shaimaa Qasem College of MLT, Ahl Al Bayt University, Kerbala, Iraq.
  • Ali A Fadhil Medical Technical College, Al-Farahidi University, Iraq.
  • Aisha Majid Alawi Anaesthesia Techniques, Al-Nisour University College, Iraq.
  • Nuha Abdul Razaq Hameed Department of Optical Techniques, Al-Noor University College, Iraq.
  • Ali Turki Shnishi Al-Hadi University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Naseer Mihdy Mohammed Mazaya University College, Iraq.
Keywords: Rubella Infection, Recurrent, Abortion, Women, First Trimester, Second Trimester


Introduction: Rubella infection causes some health problems in pregnant women.
Method: The current case-control study was suggested to detect the rubella infection level in women with recurrent abortion. The study was conducted on 65 patients who had suffered from abortion and 30 healthy women.
Results: The results variables showed significant differences in birth numbers and in recurrent abortion percentages. All women in the current study suffered from abortion in the first trimester and about 60% of them suffered from abortion in the second trimester. Non-significant variations were seen in age in both groups and in age categories distribution. The rubella IgG levels according to study groups, occupation, smoking and age categories recorded non-significant differences between study groups (p=0.570). The rubella IgG levels showed non-significant differences (p=0.217) with abortion and birth numbers, significant differences in the number of births (p=0.000) and abortions in women with recurrent abortion (p=0.029). Rubella showed a weak positive correlation with the number of abortions in the first trimester and in the second trimester. Rubella IgG level didn’t affect all women in the current study who suffered from abortion in the first trimester and affected 60% of the women who suffered from abortion in the second trimester. This was non-significantly associated with the rubella IgG level (p=0.727).
Conclusion: The present study concluded that rubella didn’t have any role in abortion and in recurrent abortion.

How to cite this article:
Hamad MH, Qasem S, Fadhil AA, Alawi AM, Hameed NAR, Shnishi AT, Mohammed NM. The Level of Rubella Infection in Women with Recurrent Abortion. J Commun Dis. 2022;54(4):74-78.



Sever JL, Schiff GM, Traub RG. Rubella virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1962;47:69.

Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, Wolfe C. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. 9th ed. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2006. [Google Scholar]

Ramana BV, Murty DS, Naidu KH, Reddy BK. Seroprevalance of rubella in women with bad obstetric history in Tirupati of Andhra Pradesh state of India. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2012;5(5):471. [Google Scholar]

Hamkar R, Jalilvand S, Mokhtari-Azad T, Jelyani KN, Dahi-Far H, Soleimanjahi H, Nategh R. Assessment of IgM enzyme immunoassay and IgG avidity assay for distinguishing between primary and secondary immune response to rubella vaccine. J Virol Methods. 2005;130(1):59-65. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Junaid SA, Akpan KJ, Olabode AO. Sero-survey of rubella IgM antibodies among children in Jos, Nigeria. Virol J. 2011;8:244. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Mirambo MM, Aboud S, Mushi MF, Seugendo M, Majigo M, Groß U, Mshana SE. Serological evidence of acute rubella infection among under-fives in Mwanza a threat to increasing rates of congenital rubella syndrome in Tanzania. Ital J Pediatr. 2016;42(1):54. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Hadi NJ. Prevalence of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, rubella virus and Toxoplasma gondii among aborted women in Thiqar province. J Educ Coll. 2011;1:3-9. [Google Scholar]

Boonruang S, Buppasiri P. Rubella antibodies in normal pregnant women at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(4):455-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lulandala L, Mirambo MM, Matovelo D, Gumodoka B, Mshana SE. Acute rubella virus infection among women with spontaneous abortion in Mwanza city, Tanzania. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:QC25-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jubaida N, Mondal ME, Kawsar NM. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in pregnant women. J Armed Forces Med Coll Bangladesh. 2011;7:20-4.

Tiwari S, Arora BS, Diwan R. TORCH IgM seroprevalence in women with abortions as adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;4(3):784-8.

Mwambe B, Mirambo MM, Mshana SE, Massinde AN, Kidenya BR, Michael D, Morona D, Majinge C, Groß U. Seropositivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14(1):95. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Mirambo MM, Majigo M, Aboud S, Groß U, Mshana SE. Serological makers of rubella infection in Africa in the pre vaccination era a systematic review. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):716. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Mohammed LM. Prevalence of rubella virus in pregnant women in Kirkuk city-Iraq. Kirkuk Univ J Sci Stud. 2015;10(1):47-57. [Google Scholar]

Hussein N, Balatay AA. The seroprevalence of toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and rubella infections in women with abortion in Kurdistan region of Iraq a brief report. Int J Infect. 2019;6(1):e86734. [Google Scholar]

Honarvar B, Moghadami M, Moattari A, Emami A, Odoomi N, Lankarani KB. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55043. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sasmaz T, Kurt AO, Ozturk C, Bugdayci R, Oner S. Rubella seroprevalence in women in the reproductive period, Mersin, Turkey. Vaccine. 2007;25(5):912-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rasti S, Ghasemi FS, Abdoli A, Piroozmand A, Mousavi SG, Fakhrie-Kashan Z. ToRCH “co-infections†are associated with increased risk of abortion in pregnant women. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2016;56(2):73-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tamirat B, Hussen S, Shimelis T. Rubella virus infection and associated factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics of public hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017 Oct 5;7(10):e016824. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Agbede OO, Adeyemi OO, Olatinwo AW, Kolawole OM. Sero-prevalence of antenatal rubella in UITH. Open Public Health J. 2011;4:11-6. [Google Scholar]

Olajide OM, Aminu M, Randawa AJ, Adejo DS. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Int J Womens Health. 2015;7:75-83. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA. Medical microbiology. 25th ed. United States. 2006.


Most read articles by the same author(s)