Association of IgG and IgM Levels of CMV Infection with Abortion among Women who Smoke

  • Hafidh l AI Adi College of MLT, Ahl Al Bayt University, Kerbala, Iraq.
  • Mohammed Haider Hamad Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Al Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Ali A Fadhil Medical Technical College, Al-Farahidi University, Iraq.
  • Shaymaa Abdul Hameed Khudair Advanced Biomedical Science, Al Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Anwar Sabbah Hussen Al-Hadi University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Ahmed S Abed Department of Prosthetic Dental Technology, Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Thabit Moath Omar Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, Al Noor University College, Bartella, Iraq.
Keywords: Association, CMV Infection, Abortion, Smoking, Women


Introduction: Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has become common worldwide. The current study was suggested to evaluate the impact of smoking on abortion in Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected women.
Method: The study was conducted on 66 women IgG and IgM were used to detect CMV infection in women who had undergone abortion.
Results: The current results showed significant differences in the number of births and marriage duration (p=0.009, p=0.010) and non-significant difference in age (p=0.750) in both groups. There was a high percentage of smokers (21.21%) in women with abortion as compared to the healthy group. There were significant elevations of IgG (2.32 ± 0.53) and IgM (0.51 ± 0.312) levels in women who had undergone abortion (p = 0.000) as compared to healthy women. A significant inverse association between IgG level and number of abortions (p=0.019), and a non-significant weak correlation between IgM and number of abortions (p=0.969) was noted. The impact of smoking on the number of abortions and birth showed non-significant differences (p=0.871, p=0.955) respectively between smoker and non-smoker groups. Healthy women didn’t have any abortion and showed non-significant differences in the number of births (p=0.430) in comparison with abortion group. The effect of smoking on the levels of IgG and IgM of study groups shows non-significant changes.
Conclusion: The current study concluded that smoking does not contribute to abortion in any direct effect, but it may lead to CMV infection by weakening the immune response.

How to cite this article:
Hafidh l AI Adi, Hamad MH, Fadhil AA, Khudair SAH, Hussen AS, Abed AS, Omar TM. Association of IgG and IgM Levels of CMV Infection with Abortion among Women who Smoke. J Commun Dis. 2022;54(4):15-20.



Cannon MJ, Schmid DS, Hyde TB. Review of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence and demographic characteristics associated with infection. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:202-13. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chakravarti A, Kashyap B, Matlani M. Cytomegalovirus infection an Indian perspective. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2009;27:3-11. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Cook CH, Trgovcich J. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent hosts a decade of progress and remaining challenges. Antiviral Res. 2011;90:151-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Russell MY, Palmer A, Michaels MG. Cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric immunocompromised hosts. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2011;11:437-48. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kotton CN. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplantation. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6:711-21. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Baroco AL, Oldfield EC. Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus disease in the immunocompromised patient. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2008;10:409-16. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ho M. The history of cytomegalovirus and its diseases. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2008;197:65-73. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Steininger C. Clinical relevance of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with disorders of the immune system. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:953-63. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Adler SP. Screening for cytomegalovirus during pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:1-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lazzarotto T, Guerra B, Gabrielli L, Lanari M, Landini MP. Update on the prevention, diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1285-93. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Yinon Y, Farine D, Yudin MH. Screening, diagnosis, and management of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010;65:736-43. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nigro G, Adler SP. Cytomegalovirus infections during pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2011;23:123-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Gaytant MA, Rours GI, Steegers EA, Galama JM, Semmekrot BA. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection after recurrent infection case reports and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162:248-53. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nigro G, Mazzocco M, Mattia E, Di Renzo GC, Carta G, Anceschi MM. Role of the infections in recurrent spontaneous abortion. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:983-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Spano LC, Lima Pereira FE, Basso NG, Mercon-de-Vargas PR. Human cytomegalovirus infection and abortion an immunohistochemical study. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:BR230-5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kriel RL, Gates GA, Wulff H, Powell N, Poland JD, Chin TD. Cytomegalovirus isolations associated with pregnancy wastage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970;106:885-92. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Putland RA, Ford J, Korban G, Evdokiou A, Tremaine M. Investigation of spontaneously aborted concepti for microbial DNA investigation for cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;30:248-50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Spano LC, Vargas PR, Ribeiro FS, Leite JP, Nascimento JP. Cytomegalovirus in human abortion in Espírito Santo, Brazil. J Clin Virol. 2002;25(Suppl 2):S173-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wenstrom KD, Andrews WW, Bowles NE, Towbin JA, Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL. Intrauterine viral infection at the time of second trimester genetic amniocentesis. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:420-4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jun Y, Kim E, Jin M, Sung HC, Han H, Geraghty DE, Ahn K. Human cytomegalovirus gene products US3 and US6 down-regulate trophoblast class I MHC molecules. J Immunol. 2000;164:805-11. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Luerti M, Santini A, Bernini O, Castiglioni M, Ragni MC. ELISA antibodies to cytomegalovirus in pregnant patients prevalence in and correlation with spontaneous abortion. Biol Res Pregnancy Perinatol. 1983;4:181-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Griffiths PD, Baboonian C. A prospective study of primary cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy: final report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984;91:307-15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Stagno S, Pass RF, Cloud G, Britt WJ, Henderson RE, Walton PD, Veren DA, Page F, Alford CA. Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Incidence, transmission to fetus, and clinical outcome. JAMA. 1986;256:1904-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Szkaradkiewicz A, Pieta P, Tulecka T, Breborowicz G, SÅ‚omko Z, Strzyzowski P. [The diagnostic value of anti-CMV and anti-HPV-B19 antiviral antibodies in studies on causes of recurrent abortions]. Ginekol Pol. 1997;68:181-6. Polish. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Odland JØ, Sergejeva IV, Ivaneev MD, Jensen IP, Stray-Pedersen B. Seropositivity of cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and rubella in pregnant women and recurrent aborters in Leningrad County, Russia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001;80:1025-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Radcliffe JJ, Hart CA, Francis WJ, Johnson PM. Immunity to cytomegalovirus in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1986;12:103-5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Johnson PM, Barnes RM, Hart CA, Francis WJ. Determinants of immunological responsiveness in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Transplantation. 1984;38:280-4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Macé M, Sissoeff L, Rudent A, Grangeot-Keros L. A serological testing algorithm for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection in pregnant women. Prenat Diagn. 2004;24:861-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006. [Google Scholar]

US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004. [Google Scholar]

Cunningham F, Leveno K, Bloom S, Spong CY, Dashe J, editors. Abortion. Williams obstetrics. New York, NY. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2010;23:215-37. [Google Scholar]

Nielsen A, Hannibal CG, Lindekilde BE, Tolstrup J, Frederiksen K, Munk C, Bergholt T, Buss L, Ottesen B, Grønbaek M, Kjaer SK. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1057-65. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

AL-Hajjar QN, Al-Mousawi HT. Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection between aborted & pregnant women in Babylon City. Baghdad Sci J [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022;16];18(2(Suppl.):1086. Available from: [Google Scholar]

Mohammed SS, Al-Mukhtar SH. Assessing the risk factors for cytomegalovirus and prediction the relationship between abortion and virus in Kirkuk City Hospitals. Mosul J Nurs. 2020;8(2):127-41. [Google Scholar]

Rasch V. Cigarette, alcohol and caffeine consumption risk factors for spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:182-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wisborg K, Kesmodel U, Henriksen TB, Hedegaard M, Secher NJ. A prospective study of maternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:936-41. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Bagheri L, Mokhtarian H, Sarshar N, Ghahramani M. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection among pregnant women in Eastern Iran. Braz J Infect Dis. 2012;16(4):402-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Munro SC, Hall B, Whybin LR, Leader L, Robertson P, Maine GT, Rawlinson WD. Diagnosis of and screening for cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(9):4713-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sotoodeh A, Jamshidi M, Farjam MR. Cytomegalovirus immunity in South of Iran. Am J Infect Dis. 2010;6:8-12.

Munk C. Younger women and smoking a longitudinal study of the trend in smoking prevalence and determinants of smoking initiation and cessation among nearly 14.000 Danish women [dissertation]. Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, University of Copenhagen; 2001.

Zenzes MT. Smoking and reproduction gene damage to human gametes and embryos. Hum Reprod Update. 2000;6:122-31. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Vigeh M, Yunesian M, Matsukawa T, Shamsipour M, Jeddi MZ, Rastkari N, Hassanvand MS, Shariat M, Kashani H, Pirjani R, Effatpanah M, Shirazi M, Shariatpanahi G, Ohtani K, Yokoyama K. Prenatal blood levels of some toxic metals and the risk of spontaneous abortion. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2021;26;19(1):357-63. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Garmendia J, Morey P, Bengoechea JA. Impact of cigarette smoke exposure on host-bacterial pathogen interactions. Eur Respir J. 2012;39(2):467-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Qiu F, Liang CL, Liu H, Zeng YQ, Hou S, Huang S, Lai X, Dai Z. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness up and down or upside down? Oncotarget. 2017;8(1):268-84. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Office of the Surgeon General (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US) [Internet]. The health consequences of smoking a report of the Surgeon General. Reproductive Effects. Atlanta (GA) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2004 [cited 2022]. Available from:

Harlev A, Agarwal A, Gunes SO, Shetty A, du Plessis SS. Smoking and male infertility an evidence-based review. World J Men Health [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022];33(3):143-60. Available from: [Google Scholar]


Most read articles by the same author(s)