The Correlation between Caspase-1 Polymorphisms and COVID-19 Severity Score of Recovered Iraqi Patients

  • Siham Abbas Jabber Fatima AL- Zahraa Hospital, Ministry of Health, Iraq.
  • Ali Hussein Alwan Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Mustansiriyah, Iraq.
Keywords: Coronavirus, Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2, responsible for the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is a single-stranded RNA-enveloped virus encoding 9860 amino acids. Coronavirus particles contain structural and non-structural proteins. The S, E, M, and N genes code for structural proteins, while the Open Frame Reading (ORF) region codes for nonstructural proteins like 3-chymotrypsin-like protease, papain-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This study aimed to provide local data about SNP rs580253 and rs551684387 Casp1 genotype for Iraqi patients with various infections caused by coronavirus.

Eighty blood samples were collected between November 2020 and February 2021, with the age of patients ranging from 20 to 65 years. The sample comprised 50 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (23 males and 27 females) from the hospitals in Baghdad, and 30 matched apparently healthy subjects as control (20 males and 10 females). All of them underwent PCR tests. The samples of 50 patients were divided into sub-groups according to the severity (mild, moderate, and severe).

The statistical analysis of rs580253 showed that there was no significant difference between control and patient groups (p-value = 0.63). The comparison between the cases, for mild, moderate and severe cases showed that there was no significant difference between cases. Also, the statistical analysis of SNP rs551684387 Casp showed that there was no significant difference between control and patient groups. The comparing between the mild, moderate, and severe cases showed no significant difference between the severity of cases.

According to our study, we thought that there is a genetic association between the SNP rs580253 Casp1 genotype, rs551684387 Casp1 genotype and the severity of infection COVID-19, and there is no genetic link between the two studied SNPs and severity of infection COVID-19.

How to cite this article:
Jabber SA, Alwan AH. The Correlation between Caspase-1 Polymorphisms and COVID-19 Severity Score of Recovered Iraqi Patients. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(4):97-103.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/0019.5138.202179

References

Monchatre-Leroy E, Boue F, Boucher JM, Renault C, Moutou F, Gouilh MA, Umhang G. Identification of alpha and beta coronavirus in wildlife species in France: bats, rodents, rabbits, and hedgehogs. Viruses. 2017;9(12):364. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17(3):181-92. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Cong Y, Ren X. Coronavirus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells: a review. Rev Med Virol. 2014;24(5):308-15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tortorici MA, Veesler D. Structural insights into coronavirus entry. Adv Virus Res. 2019;105:93-116. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, Xiang J, Wang Y, Song B, Gu X, Guan L, Wei Y, Li H, Wu X, Xu J, Tu S, Zhang Y, Chen H, Cao B. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020; 395(10229):1054-62. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chen G, Wu D, Guo W, Cao Y, Huang D, Wang H, Wang T, Zhang X, Chen H, Yu H, Zhang X, Zhang M, Wu S, Song J, Chen T, Han M, Li S, Luo X, Zhao J, Ning Q. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest. 2020;130:2620–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A, Müller MA, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020;181:271-80. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Paraskevis D, Kostaki EG, Magiorkinis G, Panayiotakopoulos G, Sourvinos G, Tsiodras S. Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event. Infect Genet Evol. 2020;79:104212.‏ [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Hui DS, Azhar EI, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA, Drosten C, Zumla A, Petersen E. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;91:264-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Habib OS, AlKanan AK, Abed AH, Mohammed NQ. Epidemiological features of COVID-19 epidemic in Basrah-Southern Iraq-first report. Med J Basrah Univ. 2020;38(1):7-18. [Google Scholar]

Cai Q, Chen F, Wang T, Luo F, Liu X, Wu Q, He Q, Wang Z, Liu Y, Liu L, Chen J, Xu L. Obesity and COVID-19 severity in a designated hospital in Shenzhen, China. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(7):1392-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. United States COVID-19 cases, deaths, and laboratory testing (NAATs) by state, territory, and jurisdiction; 2020 [2020 Apr 9]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html

Martinon F, Tschopp J. Inflammatory caspases and inflammasomes: master switches of inflammation. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:10-22. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Dinarello CA. Immunological and inflammatory functions of the interleukin-1 family. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:519-50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lalor SJ, Dungan LS, Sutton CE, Basdeo SA, Fletcher JM, Mills KH. Caspase-1-processed cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 promote IL-17 production by gammadelta and CD4 T cells that mediate autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2011;186:5738-48. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Coccia M, Harrison OJ, Schiering C, Asquith MJ, Becher B, Powrie F, Maloy KJ. IL-1b mediates chronic intestinal inflammation by promoting the accumulation of IL-17A secreting innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1595609. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zhang Y, Saccani S, Shin H, Nikolajczyk BS. Dynamic protein associations define two phases of IL-1beta transcriptional activation. J Immunol. 2008;181:503-12. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Martinon F, Tschopp J. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell. 2004;117:561-74. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Vattam KK, Movva S, Khan IA, Upendram P, Mukkavalli KK, Rao P, Hasan Q. Importance of gene polymorphisms in renal transplant patients to prevent post transplant diabetes. J Diab Metab. 2014;5(12):1-4. [Google Scholar]

Borges JB, Hirata TD, Cerda A, Fajardo CM, Cesar RC, França JI, Santos JC, Wang HT, Liporace IL, Castro LR, Sampaio MF, Souza AG, Hirata RD, Hirata M. Polymorphisms in genes encoding metalloproteinase 9 and lymphotoxin-alpha can influence Warfarin treatment. J Pharmacogenom Pharmacoprot. 2015;6(1):143. [Google Scholar]

Sripichai O, Fucharoen S. Genetic polymorphisms and implications for human diseases. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(2):394-8. [Google Scholar]

Bi Q, Wu Y, Mei S, Ye C, Zou X, Zhang Z, Liu X, Wei L, Truelove SA, Zhang T, Gao W, Cheng C, Tang X, Wu X, Wu Y, Sun B, Huang S, Sun Y, Zhang J, Ma T, Lessler J, Feng T. Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(8):911-9 .‏[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Usul E, Şan İ, Bekgöz B, Şahin A. Role of hematological parameters in COVID-19 patients in the emergency room. Biomark Med. 2020;14(13):1207-15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Borghesi A, Zigliani A, Masciullo R, Golemi S, Maculotti P, Farina D, Maroldi R. Radiographic severity index in COVID-19 pneumonia: relationship to age and sex in 783 Italian patients. Radiol Med. 2020;125(5):461-4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Portou MJ, Baker D, Abraham D, Tsui J. The innate immune system, toll-like receptors and dermal wound healing: a review. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015;71:31-6.‏ [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rubartelli A, Lotze MT. Inside, outside, upside down: damage-associated molecular-pattern molecules (DAMPs) and redox. Trends Immunol. 2007;28(10):429-36.‏ [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Narożna B, Langwinski W, Jackson C, Lackie P, Holloway JW, Szczepankiewicz A. MicroRNA-328 is involved in wound repair process in human bronchial epithelial cells. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017;242:59-65. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chandan K, Gupta M, Sarwat M. Role of host and pathogen-derived microRNAs in immune regulation during infectious and inflammatory diseases. Front Immunol. 2020;10:3081. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Queiroz GD, da Silva RR, Pires AD, Costa RD, Alcântara-Neves NM, da Silva TM, Barreto ML, Oliveira SC, Figueirêdo CA. New variants in NLRP3 inflammasome genes increase risk for asthma and Blomia tropicalis-induced allergy in a Brazilian population. Cytokine X. 2020;2(3):100032.‏ [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Clipman SJ, Henderson-Frost J, Fu KY, Bern C, Flores J, Gilman RH. Genetic association study of NLRP1, CARD, and CASP1 inflammasome genes with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy among Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive patients in Bolivia. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192378. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Blankenberg S, Godefroy T, Poirier O, Rupprecht HJ, Barbaux S, Bickel C, Nicaud V, Schnabel R, Kee F, Morrison C, Evans A, Lackner KJ, Cambien F, Munzel T, Tiret L; AtheroGene Investigators. Haplotypes of the caspase-1 gene, plasma caspase-1 levels, and cardiovascular risk. Circ Res. 2006;99(1):102-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Published
2021-12-31