The Study of Biochemical Markers in Chronic Renal Failure Patients in Pre- and Post- Haemodialysis

  • Mohammed Abed Jawad
  • Abed J Kadhim Al-Nisour University College, Iraq
Keywords: Renal Failure, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Blood Urea Concentration (BUC), Creatinine (Cr)


Background: The current research is designed to investigate alterations in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde - MDA) and renal markers (urea and creatinine) in patients of chronic renal failure (CRF) as compared to the control group.

Method: The study included 55 subjects, who were separated into two groups: control group, which included 15 healthy members with no history of systematic illness; and patients group, which included 40 patients with CRF divided into four groups “Non: CRF patients without any accompanied disease, DM: CRF patients with diabetes mellitus, HT: CRF patients with hypertension, and HT + DM: CRF patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension”.

Results: The findings reveal that there is a notable increase in serum concentration of MDA, urea, and creatinine, in patients group as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: In all chronic renal failure patients with or without any accompanying disease, lipid peroxidation is present in pre- and posthaemodialysis patients as well as patients with CRF have high levels of urea and creatinine compared with healthy groups.

How to cite this article:
Jawad MA, Kadhim AJ. The Study of Biochemical Markers in Chronic Renal Failure Patients in Pre- and Post-Haemodialysis. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):259-264.



Agrawal M, Swartz R. Acute renal failure. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Apr;61(7):2077-88. [PubMed]

Anavekar NS, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, Solomon SD, Kober L, Rouleau JL, White HD, Nordlander R, Maggioni

A, Dickstein K, Zelenkofske S, Leimberger JD, Califf RM, Pfeffer MA. Relation between renal dysfunction and

cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep;351(13):1285-95. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

Chambers JK. Fluid and electrolyte problems in renal and urologic disorders. Nurs Clin North Am. 1987;22(4):815-26. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ashok KJ, Sajida MP, Joseph S. Plasma ceruloplasmin in chronic renal failure patients undergoing

haemodialysis. J Clin Diag Res. 2010;4:2058-60. [Google Scholar]

Battino M, Ferreiro MS, Gallardo I, Newman HN, Bullon P. The antioxidant capacity of saliva. J Clin Periodontol.

Mar;29(3):189-94. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Beguin Y. Soluble transferrin receptor for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status. Clin Chim Acta. 2003

Mar;329(1-2):9-22. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Almamoori AMJ, Alwan WK, Al-Jassani MJ, Khadairi MM, Salh SM, Almamori NMJ. Evaluation of DNA

damage and antioxidants defense systems in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Ann Trop Med Public Health.

;22(12):141-50. [Google Scholar]

Kedziora-Kornatowska KZ, Luciak M, Blasczyk J, Pawlak W. Lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant

enzymes in erythrocytes of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes with or without nephropathy.

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(11):2829-32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N. Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec;338:668-76. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Yfjord JE, Bodvarsdottir SK. Genomic instability and cancer: networks involved in response to DNA damage.

Mutat Res. 2005 Dec;592:18-28. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Menden CE, Boian JM, Murthy L, Petering HG. Plasma antioxidant. J Anal Lett. 1977;10:197.

Meyer TW, Hostetter TH. Uremia. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep;357(13):1316-25. [PubMed]

Mehdi WA. Determination of resistin and several antioxidants in sera of patients with chronic renal

failure. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2011;5(8):196-203. [Google Scholar]

Kubrusly M, Oliveira CM, Santos DC, Mota RS, Pereira ML. A comparative analysis of pre- and post-dialysis

albumin as indicators of nutritional and morbi-mortality risks in haemodialysis patients. J Bras Nephrol. 2012

Mar;34(1):27-35. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Michael IO, Gabreil OE. Chronic renal failure in children of Benin, Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2004 Jan-

Mar;15(1):79-83. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Mitch WE. Malnutrition: A frequent misdiagnosis for hemodialysis patients. J Clin Invest. 2002 Aug;110(4):

-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nguyen-Khoa T, Massy ZA, De Bandt JP, Kebede M, Salama L, Lambrey G, Witko-Sarsat V, Drueke

TB, Lacour B, Thevenin M. Oxidative stress and haemodialysis: role of inflammation and duration of

dialysis treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Feb;16(2):335-40. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nitescu N. Studies on pathophysiological mechanisms in experimental models of acute renal failure [thesis].

Goteborg, Sweden: Goteborg University, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology and

Intensive Care; 2007. 49 p. [Google Scholar]

Oka Y, Miyazaki M, Takatsu S, Kunitomo K, Kokumai Y, Matsuda H, Maruyama M. Lowering of oxidative

stress in hemodialysis patients by dialysate cleaning: in relation to arteriosclerosis. Ther Apher Dial. 2004

Aug;8(4):313-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Patel BN, Dunn RJ, Jeong SY, Zhu Q, Julien JP, David S. Ceruloplasmin regulates iron levels in the CNS and prevents free radical injury. J Neurosci. 2002 Aug;22(15):6578-86. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rayner HC, Pisoni RL, Bommer J, Canaud B, Hecking E, Locatelli F, Piera L, Bragg-Gresham JL, Feldman

HI, Goodkin DA, Gillespie B, Wolfe RA, Held PJ, Port FK. Mortality and hospitalization in haemodialysis

patients in five European countries: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study

(DOPPS). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004 Jan;19(1):108-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rosner MH. Hemodialysis for the non-nephrologist. South Med J. 2005 Aug;98(8):785-91. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

Rutkowski P, Malgorzewicz SM, Lysiak-Szydlowska W, Swierczynski J, Rutkowski B. Interrelationship between

uremic toxicity and oxidative stress. J Ren Nutr. 2006 Jul;16(3):190-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sarkar D, Latif SA, Aich J, Uddin MM, Uddin MM. Studies on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance

in hypertensive patients. Bangladesh Soc Physiol. 2006;1:19-26. [Google Scholar]

Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal

physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(1):44-84. [PubMed] [Google


Samuel VT, Johncy SS, Murthy JD, Rekha M, Poornima RT. Potential role of oxidative stress and antioxidant

deficiency in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. J Pharm Sci Res. 2011;3(2):1046-51. [Google Scholar]