Integrated Pest Management Programs with Special Emphasis on Livestock Production in India: A Review

  • Athira Kumichiyil Kumaran Department of Zoology, Christ College, Irinjalakuda, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
  • Anis KV St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Irinjalakuda, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
Keywords: Ixodidae, Acaricides, Biological Control, Vaccines, Livestock Production


Ticks are blood-feeding ectoparasites considered as a great role in medical and veterinary science. However, they can transmit a wide variety of infectious agents that significantly impact animals’ health and product performance, which negatively reflects the livelihood of resource-poor farming communities, especially in India because 80% of the human population depends on income from dairy farms. This review focused on the problems associated with TBDs and integrated tick control strategies, emphasizing livestock farming systems in India. Developments discussed in the review in the controlling measures such as the efficacy of acaricides, biological control, and recent advances in vaccine development.

How to cite this article:
Kumaran AK, Anis KV. Integrated Pest Management Programs with Special Emphasis on Livestock Production in India: A Review. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):167-172.



Abdigoudarzi M, Esmaeilnia K, Shariat N. Laboratory study on biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

by entomopathogenic indigenous fungi (Beauveria bassiana). Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2009;3(2):36-43.

[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Brites-Neto J, Duarte KMR, Martins TF. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.

Vet World. 2015 Mar;8(3):301-15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chandra A, Pathak P, Bhatt R. Stylosanthes research in India: prospects and challenges ahead. Current Science.

;90(7):915-21. [Google Scholar]

de Castro JJ. Sustainable tick and tickborne disease control in livestock improvement in developing

countries. Vet Parasitol. 1997 Jul;71(2-3):77-97. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

de la Fuente J. Controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases. looking forward. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018

Jul;9(5):1354-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

De Vos S, Zeinstra L, Taoufik A, Willadsen P, Jongejan F. Evidence for the utility of the Bm86 antigen from

Boophilus microplus in vaccination against other tickspecies. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25(3):245-61. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

DeBach P, Becher, Rosen D. Biological control by natural enemies. CUP Archive, 1991. [Google Scholar]

Gerem B, Eskezia B, Desta A. Review on the impact of ticks on livestock health and productivity. J Biol Agric

Health. 2016;6(22):1-7. [Google Scholar]

Donald A. Parasites, animal production and sustainable development. Vet Parasitol. 1994 Aug;54(1-3):27-47.

[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Fragoso H, Rad PH, Ortiz M, Rodriguez M, Redondo M, Herrera L, De la Fuente J. Protection against Boophilus

annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. Vaccine.

Dec;16(20):1990-92. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Furman DP, Loomis EC. The ticks of California (Acari: Ixodida). University of California Press, 1984;25.

García-García JC, Gonzalez IL, González DM, Valdés M, Méndez L, Lamberti J, Ortiz M. Sequence variations in

the Boophilus microplus Bm86 locus and implications for immunoprotection in cattle vaccinated with this

antigen. Exp Appl Acarol. 1999 Nov;23(11):883-95. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

George J, Pound J, Davey R. Acaricides for controlling ticks on cattle and the problem of acaricide resistance.

Ticks: biology, disease and control, 2008;408-423. [Google Scholar]

Ghosh S, Azhahianambi P, de la Fuente J. Control of ticks of ruminants, with special emphasis on

livestock farming systems in India: present and future possibilities for integrated control-a review. Exp Appl

Acarol. 2006;40(1):49-66. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ghosh S, Khan M. Studies on immunological control of ticks. II: Immunization of cattle against Boophilus

microplus using tick extract supernatant antigen. J Vet Parasitol. 1996;10:33-7.

Ghosh S, Nagar G. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress

in tick control research: a review. J Vector Borne Dis. 2014 Dec;51(4):259-70. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Holbrook MR. Kyasanur forest disease. Antiviral research. 2012;96(3):353-362. [PubMed] [Google


Hurtado OJB, Giraldo-Ríos C. Economic and health impact of the ticks in production animals. Ticks and

Tick-Borne Pathogens. Books on Demand, 2019;1-19. [Google Scholar]

Minjauw B, McLeod A. Epidemiology and economic of tick-borne diseases: their effects on the livelihoods

of the poor in East and Southern Africa and in India. Consultancy report to the Animal Health Programme

(AHP) of the Department for International Development (DFID), Nairobi, Kenya. 2000;94.

Mondal D, Sarma K, Saravanan M. Upcoming of the integrated tick control program of ruminants with

special emphasis on livestock farming system in India. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Feb;4(1-2):1-10. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

Mwangi EN, Hassan SM, Kaaya GP, Essuman S. The impact of Ixodiphagus hookeri, a tick parasitoid, on

Ambl yomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a field trial in Kenya. Exp Appl Acarol. 1997 Feb;21(2):117-26.

[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nath S, Mandal S, Pal S, Jadhao S, Ottalwar N, Sanyal PK. Impact and management of acaricide resistance:

pertaining to sustainable control of ticks. Int J Livest Res. 2018;8(10):46-60. [Google Scholar]

Perez-Perez D, Bechara GH, Machado RZ, Andrade GM, Del Vecchio RE, Pedroso MS, Hernández MV, Farnós O.

Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus

(Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 2010 Feb;167(2-4):321-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Pipano E, Alekceev E, Galker F, Fish L, Samish M, Shkap V. Immunity against Boophilus annulatus induced by the Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine. Exp Appl Acarol. 2003;29(1-2):141-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD. Veterinary medicine e-book: a textbook of the diseases

of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006. [Google Scholar]

Rodríguez-Vivas RI, Rosado-Aguilar JA, Ojeda-Chi MM, Pérez-Cogollo LC, Trinidad-Martínez I, Bolio-González

ME. Control integrado de garrapatas en la ganadería bovina. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios.

;1(3):295-308. [Google Scholar]

Sharma AK, Kumar R, Kumar S, Nagar G, Singh NK, Rawat SS, Ghosh S. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six agro-climatic regions of India. Vet Parasitol. 2012 Sep;188(3-4):337-45. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Shyma K, Kumar S, Sangwan A, Sharma AK, Nagar G, Ray D, Ghosh S. Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016 Aug;69(4):487-500. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Shyma K, Kumar S, Sharma AK, Ray D, Ghosh S. Acaricide resistance status in Indian isolates of Hyalomma

anatolicum. Exp Appl Acarol. 2012 Dec;58(4):471-81. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Karaağaç SU. Insecticide resistance. Insecticides - advances in integrated pest management. 1st ed.

Croatia: In Tech. 2012;469-478.

Willadsen P, Bird P, Cobon G, Hungerford J. Commercialisation of a recombinant vaccine against

Boophilus microplus. Parasitology. 1995;110(S1):S43-50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]32. Anoopkumar, A., Aneesh, E.M. A critical assessment of mosquito control and the influence of climate change on mosquito-borne disease epidemics. Environ Dev Sustain (2021).

Anoopkumar, A.N., Aneesh, E.M. Environmental epidemiology and neurological manifestations of dengue serotypes with special inference on molecular trends, virus detection, and pathogenicity. Environ Dev Sustain 23, 11217–11239 (2021).