Contemporary Resistance Status of Anopheles Stephensi against Insecticides in District Dungarpur, Rajasthan, India
Pyrethroids are powerful insecticides used in the vector control program with impregnated mesh, and residual indoor sprays. However, resistance to insecticide reduces the effectiveness. The present susceptibility study carried out against the Anopheles Stephensi to monitor the sensitivity conditions of An. Stephensi vector, which raises the need to understand the state of vector resistance in the Dungarpur region of Rajasthan, India in order to better report vector-based interventions. The sensitivity study was carried out by the WHO standard method using recommended diagnostic doses of DDT, alpha-cypermethrin, permethrin, and deltamethrin. An. Stephensi showed resistance to DDT from the entire study while sensitive to alpha-cypermethrin, permethrin, and deltamethrin. The study looks at the selection and circulation of the appropriate insecticide’s molecule for a vector control program as insecticide need constant monitoring to develop effective vector control strategies such as improving insecticide by applying integrated biological and ecological methods.
How to cite this article:
Sharma NK, Ali MI, Moin S. Contemporary Resistance Status of Anopheles Stephensi against Insecticides in District Dungarpur, Rajasthan, India. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):153-158.
World Health Organization. 2020. Key facts on malaria. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/
fact-sheets/detail/malaria. Accessed on 1 April, 2021.
World Health Organization. World malaria report2019. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/
World Health Organization. 2026. Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector
mosquitoes. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250677/1/9789241511575-eng.pdf.
World Health Organization. 2006. Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public
health importance. Available from: https://WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2006.1.
N’Guessan R, Corbel V, Akogbéto M, Rowland M. Reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets and indoor
residual spraying for malaria control in pyrethroid resistance area, Benin. Emerg. Infect Dis. 2007
Feb;13(2):199. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Dash AP, Raghavendra K, Pillai MKK. Combating Resistance to Insecticides in Malaria Control - Gains
Made in India. Bayer Envir Sci J. 2006;18:30-7.
OMS. Manual on practical entomology in Malaria/prepared by the WHO division of malaria and other
parasitic diseases. Part. II. 1975. World Health Organization. Available from: https://apps.who.int/
Püntener W. Manual for field trials in plant protection second edition. Agricultural Division, Ciba-Geigy
Limited, Basle, Switzerland. 1981.
Singh KV, Bansal SK. Mapping of insecticide resistance in vectors of malaria in Rajasthan. Annual report. 2007.
Thavaselvam D, Kumar A, Sumodan PK. Insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles Stephensi, Culex
quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti in Panaji, Goa. Indian J Malariol. 1993 Jun;30(2):75-9. [PubMed]
Bansal SK, Singh KV. Insecticide susceptibility status of some anophelines in district Bikaner, Rajasthan. Indian J Malariol. 1996 Mar;33(1):1-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Perera MDB, Hemingway J, Karunaratne SP. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic
changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka. Malar J.
Aug;7(1):168. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Tikar SN, Mendki MJ, Sharma AK, Sukumaran D, Veer V, Prakash S, Parashar BD. Resistance status of the
malaria vector mosquitoes, Anopheles Stephensi and Anopheles subpictus towards adulticides and larvicides
in arid and semi-arid areas of India. J Insect Sci. 2011 Aug;11(1):85. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Tiwari S, Ghosh SK, Ojha VP, Dash AP, Raghavendra K. Reduced susceptibility to selected synthetic Pyrethroids in urban malaria vector Anopheles Stephensi: a case study in Mangalore city, South India. Malar J. 2010 Jun;9(1):1-5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Yared S, Gebressielasie A, Damodaran L, Bonnell V, Lopez K, Janies D, Carter TE. Insecticide resistance
in Anopheles Stephensi in Somali Region, eastern Ethiopia. Malar J. 2020 May;19(1):1-7. [PubMed]
Bhatt RM, Sharma SN, Barik TK, Raghavendra K. Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vector, Anopheles
culicifacies in Chhattisgarh state, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2012 Mar;49:36-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Chang X, Zhong D, Fang Q, Hartsel J, Zhou G, Shi L, Fang F, Zhu C, Yan G. Multiple resistances and complex
mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis mosquito: a major obstacle to mosquito-borne diseases control
and elimination in China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May;8(5):e2889. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Sharma RS, Sharma SN, Kumar A. Susceptibility status of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Kurnool and
Mehboobnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Commun Dis. 2003 Jun;35(2):118. [PubMed] [Google
World Health Organization. 2007. The use of DDT in malaria vector control WHO position statement. Global
malaria program. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2011/WHO_HTM_GMP_2011_eng.pdf.
Ahmad M, Buhler C, Pignatelli P, Ranson H, Nahzat SM, Naseem M, Sabawoon MF, Siddiqi AM, Vink M. Status
of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan. Malar J. 2016 Feb;15:98. [PubMed]
Safi NHZ, Ahmadi AA, Nahzat S, Warusavithana S, Safi N, Valadan R, Shemshadian A, Sharifi M, Enayati
A, Hemingway J. Hemingway J, Status of insecticide resistance and its biochemical and molecular
mechanisms in Anopheles Stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Afghanistan. Malar J. 2019 July;18(1):1-2.
[PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Ali Khan HA, Akram W, Lee S. Resistance to selected Pyrethroid insecticides in the malaria mosquito,
Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae), from Punjab, Pakistan. J Med Entomol. 2018 May;55:735-8. [PubMed]
Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA. Indication of Pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector, Anopheles
Stephensi from Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Sep;5:722-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Gorouhi MA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Raeisi A, Enayati AA, Mirhendi H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Abai MR,
Salim-Abadi Y, Rafi F. Current susceptibility status of Anopheles Stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to different
imagicides in a malarious area, Southeastern of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2016 Oct;10:493-500. [PubMed][Google Scholar]
Tiwari S, Uragayala S, Ghosh SK. A study on bionomics of malaria vectors in three different eco-epidemiological settings in upper Krishna project catchment area of Karnataka state, India: implications for malaria vector control. J Vector Borne Dis. 2019 Oct-Dec;56:339-44. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Rathor HR, Nadeem G, Khan IA. Pesticide susceptibility status of Anopheles mosquitoes in four flood-affected
districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Jan;13:60-6. [PubMed] [Google
Copyright (c) 2021 Author's
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.