Adaptive Capacity of the Communities in View of Climate Change in Areas Vulnerable to Malaria in the Himalayan Region of India
Background: Malaria is one of the major public health problems in India and climate change is expected to aggravate the situation by opening new windows for transmission, particularlyin the Himalayan region. It is, therefore, essential to identify knowledge gapsand adaptive capacity of communities to the adverse impacts of climate change, to develop adaptation plan and improve resilience.
Methods: The adaptive capacity to potential risks of malaria due to climate change was assessed in the states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, based on the knowledge, attitude, health seeking behaviour, practices and socio-economic status of the communities. The preparedness of health facilities was also assessed in the respective healthcare facilities in view of the threat of climate change.
Results: Though communities had basic knowledge about malaria, lack of specific knowledge about breeding sources of mosquitoes, use of traditional protective measures (41%) from mosquito bites, delayed health seeking behaviour by 40% households (2-4 days after illness) were found unsatisfactory.The assessment of health system revealed inadequacies in capacity for beds at CHCs (in 60%), lack of training of staff and logistics in preparedness for the threat of malaria.
Conclusion: The general knowledge of communities regarding malaria was satisfactory, but several misconceptions which may affect the vulnerability to future risk of malaria were found. The adaptive capacity was found slightly above average (57.04) owing to the overall good socio-economic status. However, lack of proper health care infrastructure may impact the overall adaptive capacity of the communities to malaria.
How to cite this article:
Hussain SSA, Ojha VP, Kumar G, Singh P, Dhiman RC. Adaptive Capacity of the Communities in View of Climate Change in Areas Vulnerable to Malaria in the Himalayan Region of India. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):143-152.
Dhiman RC, Pahwa S, Dhillon GPS, Dash AP. Climate change and threat of vector-borne diseases in India:
Are we prepared? Parasitol Res. 2010 Mar;106(4):763-73. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Dhiman RC, Chavan L, Pant M, Pahwa S. National and regional impacts of climate change on malaria by 2030.
Curr Sci. 2011;101:372-83. [Google Scholar]
Sarkar S, Gangare V, Singh P, Dhiman RC. Shift in potential malaria transmission areas in India, using
the fuzzy-based climate suitability malaria transmission (FCSMT) model under changing climatic conditions.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep;16(18):3474. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Dhiman C, Singh P, Yadav Y, Saraswat S, Kumar G, Singh R, Ojha VP, Joshi BC, Singh P. Preparedness for malaria elimination in the wake of climate change in the State of Uttarakhand (India). J Vector Borne Dis. 2019 Jan-Mar;56:46-52. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and
L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.
Onyango EA, Sahin O, Awiti A, Chu C, Mackey B. An integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework
for climate change and malaria transmission in East Africa. Malar J. 2016 Nov;15(1):551. [PubMed] [Google
Sutherst RW. Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004
Jan;17(1):136-73. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS): Guidelines for Sub-Centres. 2012. Directorate General of Health Services,
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
Salim SS, Narayanakumar R, Remya R, Safeena PK, Rahman MR, James HE. Climate change impacts on
livelihood vulnerability assessment-adaptation and mitigation options in marine hot spots in Kerala, India.
Int J Environ Clim Chang. 2018;8:180-99. [Google Scholar]
Pandey R, Jha SK. Climate vulnerability index - measure of climate change vulnerability to communities: A case of rural Lower Himalaya, India. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang. 2012;17:487-506. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Hahn MB, Riederer AM, Foster SO. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A pragmatic approach to assessing
risks from climate variability and change-A case study in Mozambique. Glob Environ Chang. 2009;19(1):74-88. [Google Scholar]
Gupta RK, Raina SK, Shora TN, Jan R, Sharma R, Hussain S. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016 Jan-Mar;5:101-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Sharma RK, Singh MP, Saha KB, Bharti PK, Jain V, Singh PP, et al. Socio-economic and household risk factors of
malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India. Indian J Med Res. 2015 May;141:567-75. [PubMed]
Tyagi P, Roy A, Malhotra MS. Knowledge, awareness and practices towards malaria in communities of rural,
semi-rural and bordering areas of east Delhi (India). J Vector Borne Dis. 2005 Mar;42(1):30-5. [PubMed]
Dhawan G, Joseph N, Pekow PS, Rogers CA, Poudel KC, Bulzacchelli MT. Malaria-related knowledge and
prevention practices in four neighbourhoods in and around Mumbai, India: a cross-sectional study. Malar
J. 2014 Aug;13:303. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Singh RK, Haq S, Dhiman RC. Studies on knowledge, attitude and practices in malaria endemic tribal areas of
Bihar and Jharkhand, India. J Trop Dis. 2013;1. [Google Scholar]
Kumar BA, Madhavi. KVP. Knowledge and practice regarding vector borne diseases among slum dwellers
of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2013;2:4756-62.
Patel AB, Rathod H, Shah P, Patel V, Garsondiya J, Sharma R. Perceptions regarding Mosquito borne
diseases in an urban area of Rajkot City. Natl J Med Res. 2011;1:2249–4995. [Google Scholar]
Anand T, Kumar R, Saini V, Meena G, Ingle G. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures against
mosquito borne diseases in a resettlement colony of Delhi. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 Mar;4:227-32.
[PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Pandit N, Patel Y, Bhavsar B. Awareness and practice about preventive method against mosquito bite in
Gujarat. Healthline. 2010;1:16–20. [Google Scholar]
Sharma AK, Bhasin S, Chaturvedi S. Predictors of knowledge about malaria in India. J Vector Borne Dis.
Sep;44:189–97. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Alobuia WM, Missikpode C, Aung M, Jolly PE. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Vectorborne
Diseases in Western Jamaica. Ann Glob Health. 2015 Sep-Oct;81(5):654-63. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Snehalatha KS, Ramaiah KD, Vijay Kumar KN, Das PK. The mosquito problem and type and costs of
personal protection measures used in rural and urban communities in Pondicherry region, South India. Acta
Trop. 2003 Sep;88(1):3-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Sharma SK, Jalees S, Kumar K, Rahman SJ. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs about malaria in a tribal area of
Bastar district (Madhya Pradesh). Indian J Public Health. 1993 Oct-Dec;37:129–32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Babu BV, Mishra S, Mishra S, Swain BK. Personalprotection measures against mosquitoes: a study of
practices and costs in a district, in the Indian state of Orissa, where malaria and lymphatic filariasis are coendemic. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007 Oct;101(7):601- 9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Copyright (c) 2021 Author's
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.