Post Flood Study on the Incidence of Leptospirosis in Alappuzha District of Kerala, India

  • Rajendran R Consultant, National Centre for Disease Control, Calicut, Kerala, India.
  • Karmakar SR Advisor, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
  • Vinay Garg Joint Director, National Centre for Disease Control, 22-Sham Nath Marg, Delhi, India.
  • Rajlakshmi Viswanathan Scientist D, National Institute of Virology 9 ICMR), Pune, Maharashtra, India.
  • Kamran Zaman Scientist C, ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Anusree SB Research Assistant, National Centre for Disease Control, Calicut, Kerala, India.
  • Regu K Additional Director and Head, National Centre for Disease Control, Calicut, Kerala, India.
  • Sharma SN Consultant, NCDC, 22-Sham Nath Marg, Delhi, India.
Keywords: Epidemiological Situation Analysis, Leptospirosis, Disease Surveillance


Alappuzha district was severely affected by floods due to the intense rainfall in August 2018. A three member team with the assistance of local health workers was entrusted to assess the post flood situation and to assist the local health department to extend expertise mainly to control infectious diseases and propose suggestions regarding hygiene and sanitary measures to be taken for health and wellbeing of the community. Among the infectious diseases, Leptospirosis poses a significant public health issue in the flood affected areas of Alappuzha district. Majority of households had taken chemoprophylaxis for Leptospirosis as per standard protocol as also temporary rehabilitation camps in the flood affected areas. There was no episode of Acute Diarrheal Diseases (ADD), found in clusters in any of the areas. The number of dengue fever cases reported in post flood period was less when compared to previous year. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations mainly concerned with the rapid implementation of control measures through refurbishment and improvement of health care delivery. The findings presented relate to an assessment carried out in Alappuzha district in September 2018 that included epidemiological situation analysis, appraisal of laboratory facilities for microbiology investigations, evaluation of health facilities and infrastructure available at Local Self Governments (LSGs).

How to cite this article:
Rajendran R, Karmakar SR, Garg V, Viswanathan R, Zaman K, Anusree SB, Regu K, Sharma SN. Post Flood Study on the Incidence of Leptospirosis in Alappuzha District of Kerala, India. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):127-134.



World Health Organization. Communicable diseases following natural disasters. Risk assessment and

priority interventions. Program on Disease Control in Humanitarian Emergencies Communicable Diseases

Cluster. WHO/CDS/NTD/CDE/2006.4. 2006, p.19.

Howard MJ, Brillman JC, Burkle FM. Infectious disease emergencies in disasters. Emerg Med Clin North Am.

May;14(2):413-28. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kouadio IK, Aljunid S, Kamigaki T, Hammad K, Oshitani H. Infectious diseases following natural disasters :

prevention and control measures. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012 Jan;10(1):95-104. [PubMed] [Google


Brown L, Murray G. Examining the relationship between infectious diseases and flooding in Europe. A systematic literature review and summary of possible public healthinterventions. Disaster Health. 2013 Apr 1;1(2):117-27. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ahern M, Kovats RS, Wilkinson P, Few R, Matthies F. Global Health Impacts of Floods: Epidemiologic

Evidence. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27:36-46. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Haake DA, Levett PN. Leptospirosis in humans. In Leptospira and Leptospirosis. Ed. Alder B. Springler

- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2015, p.293.

CD Alert. Leptospirosis: prevention and control. Newsletter of National Institute of Communicable

Diseases, DGHs, Government of India. 2005;9(12):1-8.

Himani D, Suman MK, Mane BG. Epidemiology of leptospirosis: an Indian perspective. Indian J Med

Microbiol. 2006 Oct;24(4):316-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Study report: Kerala floods of August 2018. Central Water Commission, Hydrological Studies Organization,

Hydrology (S) Directorate, Government of India. September - 2018, p.46. Available from: https://

Socolovschi C, Angelakis E, Renvoice A, Fournier PE, Marié JL, Davoust B, Stein A, Raoult D. Strikes,

flooding, rats, and leptospirosis in Marseille, France. Int J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;15(10):e710-5. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

Kuriakose M, Eapen CK, Paul R. Leptospirosis in Kolenchery, Kerala, India: epidemiology, prevalent

local serogroups and serovars and a new serovar. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Sep;13(6):691-7. [PubMed]

[Google Scholar]

Swapna RN, Tuteja U, Nair L, Sudharsana J. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in high risk groups

in Calicut, North Kerala, India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006 Oct;24(4):349-52. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Investigation Report. Epidemiological investigation of Leptospirosis in Kerala State National Institute

of Communicable Diseases (NICD), DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

-24 September 2002.

Padma Kumar K, Kumari Jayageetha PB, Libu GK, Fernandes DD. A study on epidemiological, clinical

and laboratory profile of patients with leptospirosis admitted in a tertiary care center in Central Kerala,

India. JK Science. 2016;18(4):216-20. [Google Scholar]

Bhardwaj P, Kosambiya JK, Desai VK. A case control study to explore the risk factors for acquisition of

Leptospirosis in Surat city, after flood. Indian J Med Sci. 2008 Nov;62(11):431-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Maskey MN, Shastri JS, Saraswathi K, Surpam R, Vaidya N. Leptospirosis in Mumbai: post-deluge outbreak

Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006 Oct;24(4):337-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rajendran R, Karmakar SR, Garg V, Viswanathan R, Zaman K, Anusree SB, Regu K. An appraisal of post

flood dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) surveillance in a coastal district of Kerala,

India. Entomon. 2021a;46(1):25-32.

Amitabha D, Mahesh W, Samuel PP, Kumar SS, Achhelal P. Leptospirosis in Ernakulam district of Kerala in

India: post flood surveillance. Int. J. Contemp. Med. 2019;7(2):31-5. [Google Scholar]