Challenges in Elimination of Filariasis: New Foci of B. Malayi Infection in Odisha, India
Background: Odisha was endemic for B. malayi along with W. bancrofti for Lymphatic Filariasis, but since 2004, there was no evidence of B. malayi in Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (ELF) program. We conducted the present study to reconfirm the presence of B malayi in Baleswar and Bhadrak districts of Odisha.
Methods: We conducted a night blood survey in 12 villages of Baleswar and 11 villages of Bhadrak district of Odisha in June 2017. Villages were selected purposively based on highest morbidity of reported lymphatic filariasis. A total of 6230 and 5606 blood slides were collected in Baleswar and Bhadrak districts respectively. Data was analyzed by using Microsoft Excel, 2007. Results were presented in the form of rates & ratios appropriately. Chi square, students‘t’ test & SEP was used as test of significance and p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: In Baleswar and Bhadrak district 0.99% and 0.43% of the slides were positive for microfilariasis (Mf). In Baleswar district Mf was detected in 83.3% of villages and in 5 villages the Mf infection rate was more than 1 percent. In Bhadrak district Mf was detected in 72.7% of villages and in 2 villages the Mf infection rate was more than 1 percent. In Baleshwar and Bhadrak district 98.4% and 33.3% of positive slides were due to B malayi infection and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The difference in the age and sex wise distribution was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: Present study confirms the presence of B malayi infection in Baleshwar and Bhadrak districts of Odisha.
How to cite this article:
Somalkar N, Kar SK, Mishra SS, Roy N, Pradhan MM, Sivan A et al. Challenges in Elimination of Filariasis: New Foci of B. Malayi Infection in Odisha, India. J Commun Dis 2021; 53(1): 5-9.
Bhaskar C, Harinath, Reddy MVR. Filariasis in India. Journal International Medical Science 2000; 13: 8-12.
Agarwal VK, Sashindran VK. Lymphatic Filariasis in India: Problems, Challenges and New Initiatives. Medical
Journal of Armed Forces India (MJAFI) 2006; 62: 359-62.
Park K. Parks Textbook of Preventive and Social medicine. 25th ed. Banarsidas Bhanot, Jabalpur. 2019.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Disease Control Programmes (NHM). Annual
Report 2018-19; 73-75.
Sabesan S, Palaniyandi M, Das PK et al. Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol
; 94: 591-606.
Remme JHF, Feenstra P, Lever PR et al. Tropical diseases targeted for elimination: Chagas disease, lymphatic
filariasis, onchocerciasis, and leprosy. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries 2006.
Chang MS. Operational issues in the control of the vectors of Brugia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and
Parasitology 200; 96(2): 571-6.
Hati AK, Chandra G, Bhattacharrya A et al. Annual transmission potential of bancroftian filariasis in an
urban and a rural area of West Bengal, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989; 40: 365-7.
Babu BV, Behera DK, Kerketta AS et al. Use of an inclusive partnership strategy in urban areas of Orissa, India, to increase compliance in a mass drug administration for the control of lymphatic filariasis. Annals of Tropical
Medicine and Parasitology 2006; 100: 621-630.
Chand G, Barde PV, Singh N. Emergence of new foci of filariasis in Madhya Pradesh, India. Transactions of
the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013; 107(7): 462-4.
Ramaiah KD, Kumar KNV, Ramu K. Knowledge and beliefs about transmission, prevention and control of
lymphatic filariasis in rural areas of South India. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1989; 1: 433-8.
Babu BV, Satyanarayana K. Factors responsible for coverage and compliance in mass drug administration
during the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the East Godavari district, South India. Tropical Doctor
; 33: 79-82.
Geography of Baleswar district. 2020. Available on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balasore_district.
Geography of Bhadrak district. 2020. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhadrak_district.
Nutman TB. In The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual. Fifth Edition, 2017; 574-587.
Rath K, Mishra S, Nath N et al. Knowledge and perceptions about lymphatic filariasis: a study during
the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in an urban community of Orissa, India. Tropical Biomedicine
; 23(2): 156-162.
Simonsen PE, Fischer PU, Hoerauf A et al. Manson’s Tropical Infectious Diseases. Twenty-third Edition,
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Communicable Diseases (E-ISSN: 2581-351X & P-ISSN: 0019-5138)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.