An Integrated Approach for Effective Containment of Japanese Encephalitis: First JE Case of Pune

  • Mahendra Jagtap State Entomologist, IDSP, Office of Director of Health Services, Pune.
  • Mehrunnisa Raje State Entomologist, National Centre for Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Pune.
  • Pratapsinh Sarnikar Joint Director, National Centre for Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Pune.
  • Aarati Kinnikar Professor and Head, Department of Paediatrics, BJGMC, Pune.
  • PK Srivastava Former Joint Director, National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Delhi.
  • Vijay P Bondre Scientist F, Group Leader - Encephalitis Group, ICMR-NIV, Pune.
  • Sreelakshmi PR Scientist D, Entomology Group [Medical], ICMR- NIV, Pune.
  • Pradip Awate Specialist Pediatric Department DAGA Hospital, Nagpur.
  • Naresh Sonkawade Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, BJGMC, Pune.
  • SN Sharma Former Consultant, National Centre for Disease Control Programme, Delhi.
  • Kalpana Baruah Senior Consultant and former Additional Director, National Centre for Vector Borne Diseases Control, Delhi.
Keywords: Japanese Encephalitis, JEV, Pigs, Pune, Non-endemic Region, Surveillance


Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a viral vector-borne disease. Natural hosts of the JE virus are water birds and pigs these amplifying hosts play an important role in disease transmission; man is an accidental host.
Pune district of Maharashtra state is non-endemic for JE; nevertheless, a sporadic case of JE was reported in November 2022 in an urban area of Pune. A six-year-old male child was found severely infected with JEV when tested by IgM ELISA technique using a CSF sample at the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune. In sero-surveillance, no other confirmed JE-positive case was observed.
In a veterinary survey carried out in the Vadgaonsheri area, 57 pig serum samples were collected and 40 pigs were found positive for JEV-neutralising antibodies, which confirmed JE virus infection in the locality. Necessary entomological survey and control measures were also implemented. Though the Pune district is not endemic for JE and routine vaccination is not suggested, a thoughtful decision to vaccinate the patient’s two siblings aged below 15 years was taken as a precaution.
An integrated approach of the public health department, Maharashtra state, Pune municipal corporation and its Sassoon general hospital, ICMR-NIV- Pune, and NCVBDC, GOI on various fronts has resulted in early detection of JE case, effective and successful containment of JE using entomological, epidemiological, serological and veterinary surveillance.

How to cite this article:
Raje M, Jagtap M, Sarnikar P, Kinnikar A, Srivastava PK, Bondre VP, Sreelakshmi PR, Awate P, Sonkawade N, Sharma SN, Baruah K. An Integrated Approach for Effective Containment of Japanese Encephalitis: First JE Case of Pune. XIV Annual Conference of Indian Society for Malaria & Other Communicable Diseases (ISMOCD). 2023;117-125.



Campbell GL, Hills SL, Fischer M, Jacobson JA, Hoke CH, Hombach JM, Marfin AA, Solomon T, Tsai TF, Tsu VD, Ginsburg AS. Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(10):766-74. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wu KP, Wu CW, Tsao YP, Kuo TW, Lou YC, Lin CW, Wu SC, Cheng JW. Structural basis of a flavivirus recognized by its neutralizing antibody: solution structure of the domain III of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(46):46007-13. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Endy TP, Nisalak A. Japanese encephalitis virus: ecology and epidemiology. In: Mackenzie JS, Barrett AD, Deubel V, editors. Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Vol. 267. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2002. p. 11-48. [Google Scholar]

Soman RS, Rodrigues FM, Guttikar SN, Guru PY. Experimental viraemia and transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by mosquitoes in ardeid birds. Indian J Med Res. 1977;66(5):709-18. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Burke DS, Leake CJ. Japanese encephalitis. In: Monath TP, editor. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Vol. 3. CRC Press; 1988. p. 63-92. [Google Scholar]

Van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Mackenzie JS. Ecology and geographical expansion of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Entomol. 2009;54:17-35. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Konno J, Endo K, Agatsuma H, Ishida N. Cyclic outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis among pigs and humans. Am J Epidemiol. 1966;84(2):292-300. [PubMed]

Sathe TV, Sathe AT, Jagtap M. Mosquito borne diseases. Manglam Publishers and Distributors; 2010. p. 1-342.

Burke DS, Tingpalapong M, Ward GS, Andre R, Leake CJ. Intense transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus to pigs in a region free of epidemic encephalitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1985;16(2):199-206. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Murty US, Rao MS, Arunachalam N. The effects of climatic factors on the distribution and abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010;47(1):26-32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kumari R, Kumar K, Rawat A, Singh G, Yadav NK, Chauhan LS. First indigenous transmission of Japanese Encephalitis in urban areas of National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18(6):743-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Connor B, Bunn WB. The changing epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and new data: the implications for new recommendations for Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2017;3:14. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Flohic GL, Porphyre V, Barbazan P, Gonzalez JP. Review of climate, landscape, and viral genetics as drivers of the Japanese encephalitis virus ecology. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(9):e2208. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sathe A, Mugade RB, Bhosale AS, Jagtap M, Sathe TV. Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Sangli district, India. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2011;2(3):335-9. [Google Scholar]

Jagtap MB, Mugade RB, Bhosale AS, Sathe A, Sathe TV. Trends of Chandipura viral encephalitis in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. Biospectra. 2011;6(1):53-6.

Rogers B, Bunn WB, Connor BA. An update on travel vaccines and issues in travel and international medicine. Workplace Health Saf. 2016;64(10):462-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Paint Maps [Internet]; [cited 2023 Jul 21]. Available from:

Lord JS, Gurley ES, Pulliam JR. Rethinking Japanese encephalitis virus transmission: a framework for implicating host and vector species. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(12):e0004074. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lee DW, Choe YJ, Kim JH, Song KM, Cho H, Bae GR, Lee JK. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in South Korea, 2007–2010. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16(6):e448-52. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kumari R, Joshi PL. A review of Japanese encephalitis in Uttar Pradesh, India. WHO South East Asia J Public Health. 2012;1(4):374-95. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Singh A, Mitra M, Sampath G, Venugopal P, Rao JV, Krishnamurthy B, Gupta MK, Krishna SS, Sudhakar B, Rao NB, Kaushik Y, Gopinathan K, Hegde NR, Gore MM, Mohan VK, Ella KM. A Japanese encephalitis vaccine from India induces durable and cross-protective immunity against temporally and spatially wide-ranging global field strains. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(5):715-25. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chatterjee K, Bhadra A, Ray SK, Mukherjee S, Sen S. Review of Japanese encephalitis vaccines in India. Asian Pac J Health Sci. 2022;9(4):272-83. [Google Scholar]

Ricklin ME, García-Nicolás O, Brechbühl D, Python S, Zumkehr B, Nougairede A, Charrel RN, Posthaus H, Oevermann A, Summerfield A. Vector-free transmission and persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10832. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Takashima I, Watanabe T, Ouchi N, Hashimoto N. Ecological studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hokkaido: interepidemic outbreaks of swine abortion and evidence for the virus to overwinter locally. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;38(2):420-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]