Designing a Vaccine Platform composed of Phage encapsulated with Chitosan Nanoparticles Targeting Pathogenic Viruses
Introduction: The current study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of designing a novel platform using chitosan-coated bacteriophage for vaccination against pathogenic viral agents. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was used as a model in this study. The novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 disease and relies on ACE2 as its obligate receptor to enter cells. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus is an important epitope for neutralising activity and is efficiently produced. To improve immunisation, E. coli phage particles are being used as vaccine delivery vehicles, and chitosan (CS) is a promising candidate for use as an adjuvant/ carrier in vaccine delivery.
Methods: The process included the preparation of antigens, isolation of bacteriophage, encapsulation with chitosan (CS-NPs) to form CSNPs loaded with phage (phage-CS-NPs), loading with RBD protein, characterisation of phage by TEM, while that of chitosan (CS-NP) and encapsulation of phage-CS-NP by FTIR spectra, followed by measurement of released RBD protein by HPLC technique, vaccination of rabbit, and then detection of antibody by competitive ELIZA.
Results: Nanoparticle adjuvant of phage encapsulated with chitosan and loaded with RBD antigen has shown to induce good titre of antiRBD IgG antibodies after being injected in rabbits for three doses and 2 weeks intervals in between, similar to the effect of alum, but with less toxicity than alum.
Conclusion: It has been shown that using nanoparticles complex adjuvant with alum adjuvant was more effective in boosting humoral immunity than if they were used separately.
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Shukur FMM, Abdulamir AS, Taha AA. Designing a Vaccine Platform composed of Phage encapsulated with Chitosan Nanoparticles Targeting Pathogenic Viruses. J Commun Dis. 2023;55(2):9-17
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