Entomological Investigation During an Outbreak of Dengue in 2018 in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh

  • Narayani Prasad Kar National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
  • Gaurav Kumar National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
  • Shweta Pasi National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
  • VP Ojha National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
  • Sonam S Negi Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Himachal Pradesh, India.
  • Ramesh C Dhiman National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
Keywords: Aedes Aegypti, Aedes Albopictus, Dengue, Entomological Indices, Himachal Pradesh

Abstract

Background: Post dengue outbreak in July 2018, an entomological survey was undertaken in the Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh in India, to identify risk factors for Aedes breeding and subsequently suggest mitigation measures to control the epidemic situation.
Method: In view of the clustering of dengue cases, three wards of Diara primary health centre and surrounding villages were selected for the survey. Hand catch method was used to collect adult vectors resting indoors, whereas immature stages of vectors were collected from containers using a ladle. Man-hour density and other vital entomological indices were calculated using the standard methods.
Results: An alarming Breteau Index (129), as well as a very high House Index (75), Container Index (32) and Pupal Index (120) were observed during the survey, indicating a dengue outbreak situation. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, vectors of dengue, were collected from the affected region with man-hour density ranging between 1 and 6.4. Plastic containers and syntax tanks were the major containers observed in households to store water due to irregular water supply.
Interpretation & Conclusion: The population was hesitant to discard the stored water due to scarcity and irregular water supply. Plastic containers were the most productive for Aedes breeding. Community knowledge, attitude and practices towards the severity of dengue, its prevention and control were low. The present study recommends that the dengue control strategy should focus on keeping water supply and plastic containers in mind and the community should be mobilised to keep water containers covered properly, or source reduction should be done.

How to cite this article:
Kar NP, Kumar G, Pasi S, Ojha VP, Negi SS, Dhiman RC. Entomological Investigation During an Outbreak of Dengue in 2018 in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh. J Commun Dis. 2022;54(4):29-35.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/0019.5138.202299

References

Durdana S, Khan R, Ahmad S. Post-viral cerebellitis a rare neurological manifestation of dengue. J Case Rep. 2022;11(4):213-5. [Google Scholar]

Maula AW, Fuad A, Utarini A. Ten-years trend of dengue research in Indonesia and South-east Asian countries a bibliometric analysis. Glob Health Action. 2018;11(1):1504398. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

World Health Organization [Internet]. Dengue and severe dengue; 2022 [cited 2022 Mar 15]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue

Lee IK, Chen YH, Huang CH, Hsu JC, Chang YC, Kuo HJ, Tai CH, Lee NY. A multicenter cohort study of severe dengue and critically ill influenza patients with elevated cardiac troponin-I: difference clinical features and high mortality. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022;47:102281. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Gan SJ, Leong YQ, Bin Barhanuddin MF, Wong ST, Wong SF, Mak JW, Ahmad RB. Dengue fever and insecticide resistance in Aedes mosquitoes in Southeast Asia a review. Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):315. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lowe R. Modeling the impact of environmental change on infectious diseases. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;73:60-1. [Google Scholar]

Shragai T, Harrington LC. Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) on an invasive edge abundance, spatial distribution, and habitat usage of larvae and pupae across urban and socioeconomic environmental gradients. J Med Entomol. 2019;56(2):472-82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lippi CA, Stewart-Ibarra AM, Muñoz ÁG, Borbor-Cordova MJ, Mejía R, Rivero K, Castillo K, Cárdenas WB, Ryan SJ. The social and spatial ecology of dengue presence and burden during an outbreak in Guayaquil, Ecuador, 2012. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(4):827. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sharma RS, Kumari R, Srivastava PK, Barua K, Chauhan LS. Emergence of dengue problem in India-a public health challenge. J Commun Dis. 2014;46(2):17-45.

Dev V, Mahanta N, Baruah BK. Dengue, an emerging arboviral infection in Assam, northeast India. Trop Biomed. 2015;32(4):796-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kumar G, Pasi S. Risk of dengue epidemics in Northern Himalayan state of India: are we prepared enough. J Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021;11(1):42-4. [Google Scholar]

Singh RK, Dhiman RC, Dua VK, Joshi BC. Entomological investigations during an outbreak of dengue fever in Lal Kuan town, Nainital district of Uttarakhand, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010;47(3):189. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Singh AK, Chawla S, Chawla B, Bhaglani DK, Sharma KC. Role of a surveillance system in the management of an outbreak of dengue in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(11):1-5. [Google Scholar]

Sudhan SS, Sharma M, Sharma P, Gupta RK, Sambyal SS, Sharma S. Serosurveillance of dengue, chikungunya and Zika in Jammu, a sub-Himalayan region of India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(11). [Google Scholar]

Raju BM, Rao KV, Venkateswarlu B, Rao AV, Rao CA, Rao VU, Rao BB, Kumar NR, Dhakar R, Swapna N, Latha P. Revisiting climatic classification in India: a district-level analysis. Curr Sci. 2013;105(4):492-5. [Google Scholar]

District Bilaspur [Internet]. Fact file district Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh; [cited 2022 Apr 3]. Available from: https://hpbilaspur.nic.in/about-district/fact-file/

Singh HP, Sharma MR, Hassan Q, Ahsan N. Impact of drought on drinking water resources of Himachal Pradesh. Biol Forum Int J. 2010;2:73-7.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for dengue surveillance and mosquito control. Manila WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 2003. [Google Scholar]

World Health Organization. Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Part II. Methods and techniques. WHO Division of Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases; 1975.

Das BP, Kaul SM. Pictorial key to the common Indian species of Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes. J Commun Dis. 1998;30(2):123-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Bhat MA, Krishnamoorthy K. Entomological investigation and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2014;3(10):253-60.

García-Betancourt T, Higuera-Mendieta DR, González-Uribe C, Cortés S, Quintero J. Understanding water storage practices of urban residents of an endemic dengue area in Colombia perceptions, rationale and socio-demographic characteristics. PloS One. 2015;10(6):e0129054. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Vijayakumar K, Kumar TK, Nujum ZT, Umarul F, Kuriakose A. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2014;51(1):27. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Nguyen-Tien T, Do DC, Le XL, Dinh TH, Lindeborg M, Nguyen-Viet H, Lundkvist Å, Grace D, Lindahl J. Risk factors of dengue fever in an urban area in Vietnam a case-control study. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Krystosik A, Njoroge G, Odhiambo L, Forsyth JE, Mutuku F, LaBeaud AD. Solid wastes provide breeding sites, burrows, and food for biological disease vectors, and urban zoonotic reservoirs: a call to action for solutions based research. Front Public Health. 2020;7:405. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Trewin BJ, Darbro JM, Jansen CC, Schellhorn NA, Zalucki MP, Hurst TP, Devine GJ. The elimination of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, from Brisbane, Australia the role of surveillance, larval habitat removal and policy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017:28;11(8):e0005848. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Government of India [Internet]. National Guidelines for Clinical Management of Dengue Fever; [cited 2022 Jan 10]. Available from: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/WriteReadData/l892s/Dengue-National-Guidelines-2014.pdf

Published
2022-12-31