Vectors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): Prevention and its Control
CCHF is caused by a tickborne virus (Nairovirus) in the family Bunyaviridae. It was first characterized in the Crimea in 1944 and given the name Crimean hemorrhagic fever. Later, it was recognized in 1969 as the cause of illness in the Congo, thus resulting in the current name of the disease. CCHF is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected animals, but a serious threat to humans. The virus is mainly transmitted by tick species of the genus Hyalomma. During January 2011, Nosocomial (infections caught in hospitals) outbreak was detected in Gujarat, Ahmedabad. Thereafter, several outbreaks and cases of CCHF were reported in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan during 2012-15. Cases were documented from six districts of Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Amreli, Patan, Surendranagar, Kutch and Aravalli), 3 districts of Rajasthan (Sirohi, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer) and in state of Uttar Pradesh were also affected. During 2019, 3 cases were reported in Rajasthan & 17 cases reported from Gujarat from the districts of Bhavnagar, Botad, Amreli, Kheda, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Morbi, Jodhpur. An attempt has been made to describe the vectors of CCHF in India and its prevention and control so as to benefit the program managers working at the grass root level.
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