COVID-19 Pneumonia in a 3-month-old Infant leading to Post-COVID-19 Interstitial Lung Disease
Background: COVID-19 disease is generally considered to be mild in infants and young children. Although there are reports of severe disease being caused due to COVID-19 infection, the incidence of interstitial lung disease post-COVID-19 is extremely rare in infants. We present to you a rare case report of post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease in a male child of 15 months of age.
Case Presentation: A male child of 15 months, with chief complaints of fever since one week, and cough and fast breathing since two days, was admitted. The patient was a well-thriving child till 3 months of age after which the child was admitted twice for similar complaints. HRCT chest was done at three and a half months of age which was suggestive of COVID-19. At fifteen months of age, the child was admitted to our hospital with similar complaints. He was investigated for recurrent respiratory infections, and diseases like cystic fibrosis, primary immunodeficiency, tuberculosis etc. were ruled out. However, COVID-19 serology was positive and the child was diagnosed with post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease.
Conclusion: In our knowledge, there has not been any case where COVID-19 pneumonia has led to chronic lung disease in a 15-months-old child. Also, in this case, the COVID-19 antibodies were persisting even after one year of active disease. However, the common consensus regarding the duration for which antibodies persist after COVID-19 disease is still lacking. After the occurrence of this pandemic, while making a diagnosis, emphasis should be given on the patient’s history regarding infection and contact with COVID-19 positive individuals.
How to cite this article:
Khanam FM, Garg S, Pemde HK. COVID-19 Pneumonia in a 3-month-old Infant leading to Post-COVID-19 Interstitial Lung Disease. Postgrad J Pediatr Adol Med. 2022;1(1):49-51.
Vanhems P, Endtz H, Dananché C, Komurian-Pradel F, Picot VS. Pneumonia Study GABRIEL members. Comparison of the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2, other coronavirus and influenza infections in infants less than 1-year-old. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39:e157. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Grimaud E, Challiol M, Guilbaud C, Delestrain C, Madhi F, Ngo J, Epaud R, Nattes E. Delayed acute bronchiolitis in infants hospitalized for COVID-19. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020;55:2211. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Wells AU, Devaraj A, Desai SR. Interstitial lung disease after COVID-19 infection: a catalog of uncertainties. Radiology. 2021;299(1):E216-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Gray DM, Davies MA, Githinji L, Levin M, Mapani M, Nowalaza Z, Washaya N, Yassin A, Zampoli M, Zar HJ, Vanker A. COVID-19 and pediatric lung disease: a South African tertiary centre experience. Front Pediatr. 2021;8:614076. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Zhang Y, Xie RM, He YL, Xing LH, Dong L, Zhang JZ, Xing WH, Lv XY, Lu YB, Liu Q, Lin LB, Liu GZ, Li L, Li P, Xie YZ, Ni ZY, Yin XP, Li HJ, Gao BL. Clinical and imaging features of pediatric COVID-19. Ital J Pediatr. 2020;46:153. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Serrano CO, Alonso E, Andrés M, Buitrago NM, Vigara AP, Pajares MP, López EC, Moll GG, Espin IM, Barriocanal MB, la Calle MD, Rey CC, Bret-Zurita M. Pediatric chest X-ray in COVID-19 infection. Eur J Radiol. 2020;131:109236. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Palabiyik F, Kokurcan SO, Hatipoglu N, Cebeci SO, Inci E. Imaging of COVID-19 pneumonia in children. Br J Radiol. 2020;93:20200647. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Yao L, Wang GL, Shen Y, Wang ZY, Zhan BD, Duan LJ, Lu B, Shi C, Gao YM, Peng HH, Wang GQ, Wang DM, Jiang MD, Cao GP, Ma MJ. Persistence of antibody and cellular immune responses in Coronavirus Disease 2019 patients over nine months after infection. J Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 16;224(4):586-94. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]