A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Helfer Skin Tap Technique in Pain Reduction among Infants Undergoing Intramuscular Vaccination in Tertiary Care Setting, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Introduction: Pain is a common and disagreeable sensation for children and adult. Every child has his or her own perception of pain. Routine immunizations are the most frequent painful medical procedure during childhood. Health care professionals trying to provide vaccine to the infants with a less painful experience at their level of comfort. Skin tapping (Helfer skin technique) is one of the methods which keeps the muscles relaxed and thus reduce pain while administering IM vaccination. The researcher felt the need to do the study on the Effectiveness of Helfer Skin Tap Technique on Pain Reduction among Infants Undergoing Intramuscular Vaccination in Tertiary Care Setting, Coimbatore with the following objectives:
•To assess the pain level of infants receiving intramuscular vaccination in routine group and treatment group.
•To compare the pre and post-test level of pain during intramuscular vaccination among infants in routine and treatment group.
•To compare the pain level of infants during intramuscular vaccination between routine group and treatment group at various time intervals.
•To associate the selected demographic variables with the pain level of infants among treatment and routine group.
Materials and Methods: Quantitative research approach, quasi experimental, timeseries design was adopted. The study was conducted in pediatric vaccination clinic in a tertiary care Hospital, Peelamedu, Coimbatore. Purposive sampling technique used to select the eligible population. Simple random sampling technique was used to allocate the 60 study subjects to treatment and routine group which comprised 30 in each group. FLACC pain scale was used to assess the vaccination pain for before giving vaccination, 1, 5, and at 10 minutes after vaccination among infants undergoing intramuscular vaccination.
Results: There was a significant reduction in pain perception among infants in treatment group during vaccination (5.30 ± 1.74, p<0.001), after the vaccination at 1st minute (3.93 ± 1.51, p<0.001) and 5th minute (2.03 ± 1.69, p<0.001) and at 10th minute (0.39 ± 0.79, p<0.001)than the routine group. Female infants 15 (50%) experienced severe pain compared with male infants 12 (40%) in routine group (χ2 = 6.44, P<0.01). For other demographic variables there was no association in treatment and routine group.
Conclusion: Helfer skin tap technique was effective in reducing the IM vaccination pain during and after the vaccination.
Parkin PC. Order of vaccine injection and infant pain response. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2014; 163(5):
Piira T, Champion GD, Bustos T et al. Factor associate with infant pain response following an immunization
injection. Early Hum Dev 2007; 83(5): 319-326.
Taddio A, Chambers CT, Halperin SA et al. Inadequate pain management during routine childhood
immunizations: the nerve of it. Clin Ther 2009; 31Suppl 2: S152-S167.
Sparks L. Effective intervention for reducing immunization pain. J Pediatr Nurs 2014; 51(2): 74-78.
Taddio A, Ilersich AL, Ipp M et al. Physical interventions and injection techniques for reducing injection pain
during routine childhood immunizations: systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasirandomized controlled trials. Clin Ther 2009; 31 Suppl 2: S48-S76.
Vathani G, Kumari MJ. To assess the effectiveness of Helfer skin tap technique on pain reduction among
the patients receiving intramuscular injection. Inter J Cur Res 2017; 9(9): 57-60.
Marry JR. Effectiveness of skin tap technique in reducing pain response. Inter J Pediatr. 2015; 4(1): 22-26.
Therese M, Devi S. Effectiveness of Helfer Skin Tap Technique and routine technique on pain reduction
among children receiving intramuscular injection. Int J Nurs Sci Res 2014; 3(10): 1446-1449.
Sivapriya MS, Kumari CL. A study to assess the effectiveness of Helfer skin tap technique on pain
during intramuscular injection among neonates born in labour room of a selected tertiary level hospital. Int
J Nurs Sci Res 2015; 4(1): 56-57.
Pilitteri A. Child Health Nursing. 5th ed., W. B. Saunders Publication, Philadelphia. 2007.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research (E-ISSN: 2455-9318)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.