Self-Esteem: Relationship with Age, Gender and BMI in Adolescents
Introduction: High adolescent self-esteem protects them against high-risk behaviour and physical and mental problems. The present cross-sectional study aimed to understand the self-esteem of school-going children in Mumbai and its association with selected demographic variables and BMI.
Method: The Rosenbergâ€™s Self-Esteem Scale and a demographic questionnaire were administered to 334 children (214 boys and 120 girls), between the ages of 10 and 15 years studying in an English-medium co-ed school in Mumbai. The sample was divided into two groups based on their age: Group 1: 10- to 12- year-olds (n = 188) and Group 2: 13- to 15-year-olds (n = 146). Parental permissions and written assent of the children who participated were taken. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.
Results: The mean self-esteem score was 18.64 Â± 2.02 which is in the normal range (15-25). In older group 2, boys had significantly higher self-esteem than girls (p < 0.05). Analysis of BMI as per the Asian cut-off showed that 60.47% of students were in the underweight category. The self-esteem scores of older obese children were significantly more than that of younger obese children (p = 0.001). Similarly, older overweight students had higher self-esteem than younger overweight students (p = 0.002). High levels of self-esteem (â‰¥ 26) were seen only in the underweight and normal BMI and in the younger age group: 9.53% in boys and 6.58% in girls.
Conclusions: Overall, this sample had mean self-esteem in the normal range; high levels were seen only in a few. Children with normal BMI had higher self-esteem scores. Interestingly, underweight children also had high self-esteem scores.
How to cite this article:
Joshi S, Shah S, Bhave SY, Goel P, Sovani A. Self-Esteem: Relationship with Age, Gender and BMI in Adolescents. Ind J Youth Adol Health. 2023;10(2):1-7.
Shanmugam V, Kathyayini BV. Assertiveness and selfesteem in Indian adolescents. Galore Int J Health Sci Res
[Internet]. 2017 [cited 2023 Feb 17];2(4):8-13. Available from: https://www.gijhsr.com/ [Google Scholar]
Rosenberg M. Rosenberg self-esteem scale. APA PsycNet; 1965 Jul.
Brown JD. Self-esteem and self-evaluation: feeling is believing. In: Suls JM, editor. Psychological perspectives
on the self. 1st ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 1993;27-58. [Google Scholar]
Galanakis MJ, Palaiologou A, Patsi G, Velegraki IM, Darviri C. A literature review on the connection between
stress and self-esteem. Psychology. 2016;7:687-94. [Google Scholar]
Lei H, Mao W, Cheong CM, Wen Y, Cui Y, Cai Z. The relationship between self-esteem and cyberbullying:
a meta-analysis of children and youth students. Curr Psychol. 2019;39(3):830-42. [Google Scholar]
Khajehdaluee M, Zavar A, Alidoust M, Pourandi R. The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage
in high school students. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(11):1-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Fannin H. Sexting among adolescents: examining the association between sexting and self-esteem. Phys
Assis Stud. 2020;11:1-23. [Google Scholar]
Nguyen DT, Wright EP, Dedding C, Pham TT, Bunders J. Low self-esteem and its association with anxiety,
depression, and suicidal ideation in Vietnamese secondary school students: a cross-sectional study.
Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:698. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Balakrishnan P, Daisy A. Assessment of self-esteem among school children in selected schools at Raipur.
Asian J Nurs Educ Res. 2021;11(1):89-91. [Google Scholar]
Dhillon M, Dhawan P, Ahuja K, Kalyani A, Papneja D. Factors influencing self-esteem of Indian female
adolescents. IOSR J Humanit Soc Sci. 2016;21(7):56-63.
Dhal A, Bhatia S, Sharma V, Gupta P. Adolescent selfesteem, attachment and loneliness. J Indian Assoc Child
Adolesc Ment Health. 2007;3(3):61-3. [Google Scholar]
Choudhary Y, Kumar M, Mahore R, Lanke GW, Dubey M. Aggression, self-esteem, and resilience among
children: a school-based cross-sectional study from Central India. Asian J Soc Health Behav. 2022;5(3):115-
Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent child. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.
WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications
for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;10;363(9403):157-63. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Moradi M, Mozaffari H, Askari M, Azadbakht L. Association between overweight/obesity withdepression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction in children and adolescents: A systematic
review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
;62(2):555-70. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1823813 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.10
Bhave SY, Amin S, Nahata K, Bhalla L, Sovani A, Joshi S. Understanding the pattern of adolescentsâ€™ nutritional
behaviour and lifestyle. Indian J Youth Adol Health. 2023;10(1):1-7. [Google Scholar]
Bhave SY, Bhalla L, Sayyad YK, Bhave YS. Assessing self-efficacy of school children for making choices for
physical activity and healthy food. Asia Pac J Pediatr Child Health. 2022;5:4-12. [Google Scholar]
Naz A, Ishaque F, Yasmeen S, Naz E, Afzal R, Khan F. Impact of body weight on self-esteem among
undergraduate young adult students of Doctor of Physiotherapy, Karachi. J Rawalp Med Coll.
;26(2):174-9. [Google Scholar]
Anitha J, William BR. Relationship between body mass index and self-esteem among early adolescents in
a selected school, Coimbatore. Int J Pediatr Nurs. 2020;6(1):13-7. [Google Scholar]
Kukreja T, Jyotsana. Self-esteem, anxiety and family climate for school going boys and girls in Haryana State.
Learn Community Int J Educ Social Dev. 2015;6(1):1-12. [Google Scholar]
Devi S, Jyotsana. Identity formation: role of social support and self esteem among Indian adolescents.
Int J Indian Psychol. 2016;3(2):114-24.
Bhadouria S, Bhadoria D. A study of adolescent girlsâ€™ self-esteem in relationship with obesity. Int J Home
Copyright (c) 2023 Author's
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.