Does India Need to Rethink the Inclusion of the MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) Vaccine in the National Immunization Schedule?

  • Sneha Kumari Assistant Professor, Community Medicine, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi.
  • Sunanda Gupta Senior Resident, Community Medicine, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi.
  • Mitasha Singh Assistant Professor & Head, BSA Medical College & Hospital, New Delhi.
  • Jugal Kishore Director Professor, Community Medicine, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi.


Mumps is an acute infectious disease caused by an RNA virus classified under the genus Rubulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus has a preference for glandular and nervous tissues. Mostly children in the age group of 5–9 years are affected. It can involve older age groups also but as age advances, this disease becomes more severe. In this disease, both clinical and subclinical cases exist. Subclinical cases
account for 30–40% of all cases. The most common presentation in children is pain and swelling in either
one or both sides of the parotid glands. The child has puffy cheeks and a tender jaw. Sometimes, the child can also complain of earache on the affected side before the onset of swelling. In advanced cases, it can also affect sublingual and submandibular glands. In severe cases, the child might present with fever, headache, and other constitutional symptoms. The parotid swelling subsides slowly over 1–2 weeks. Complications such as orchitis, ovaritis, pancreatitis, meningoencephalitis, thyroiditis, neuritis, hepatitis, and myocarditis may develop in some
cases. Up to 15% of mumps patients may develop meningitis and in rare cases, it can cause sensorineural deafness, facial palsy, polyarthritis, hydrocephalous, etc. Mumps infection during pregnancy is very serious.
If infection occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, it can result in spontaneous abortions in nearly 25% of cases.


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