Risk Estimation and Stratification of Urinary Incontinence: Its Determinants and Quality of Life in Indian Females - A Cross-sectional Study
Introduction: The International Continence Society defined urinary
incontinence (UI) as “involuntary loss of urine which is deleterious and
causes social embarrassment and creates negative self-perception in
females”. India has a 21.8% prevalence of UI which increases with age.
Methods: A community-based study was conducted using a selfstructured
and validated questionnaire at the Outpatient Department
of a tertiary healthcare hospital from October 2020 to January 2021
for females between 35 and 65 years of age. 182 females who visited
the hospital underwent preliminary screening for any complaints
related to occasional or repeated problems of urinary leakage, and
those who reported concern were further interviewed in detail with
the self-structured questionnaire.
Results: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to estimate the
proportion of each category of the respective groups. 28.02% of the
study population belonging to the age group of 35 to 65 years was
found to have UI. Regression analysis estimated that females with
vaginal deliveries (> 3), diabetes (random blood sugar level above 120
mg/dl), chronic cough more than 6 months, constipation, and lower
urinary tract infection, exhibit greater odds of having UI.
Quality of life assessment was performed incorporating King’s quality of
life questionnaire which showed that the urinary incontinence impact
decreased the general health of females and caused limitations to
physical functions as well as psychological well-being which may lead
to emotional and sleep disturbances.
Conclusions: Females with higher BMI, normal vaginal deliveries, and
lower urinary tract infections can lead to urinary incontinence and
worsen quality of life.
How to cite this article:
Joshi R, Rathi M. Risk Estimation and Stratification
of Urinary Incontinence: Its Determinants and
Quality of Life in Indian Females - A Cross-
sectional Study. Chettinad Health City Med J.
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