Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure for AYUSH Outpatient Care among Older Adults in India

  • Roopali Goyanka Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi-110054, India.
  • Jeetendra Yadav Technical Officer, ICMR-National Institute of Medical Statistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India.
  • Manoj Kumar Assistant Professor & Biostatistician, A Centre for Economic Studies & Planning, School of Social Science, B School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
  • Surendra Kumar Sagar Department of Zoology, Swami Shraddhanand College (University of Delhi), Delhi, India.
Keywords: AYUSH, Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine, Outpatient Care, Healthcare Utilisation, Out of Pocket Expenditure, Older Adults


Background: Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine are known to be used across the world for many types of diseases. In India, they are referred to as AYUSH and are known to be used for promotive, preventive, and curative purposes for healthy living and well-being. This study looks at the levels, patterns, and determinants of utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditure for AYUSH outpatient care among older adults in India.
Method: Descriptive analysis, data visualisation, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis have been used.
Results: The utilisation for AYUSH care is found to be quite low at 8.2% among 52% of respondents in the sample who sought outpatient care during the reference period. The study found the mean OOPE for AYUSH to be ₹ 687 per episode, in comparison with the overall mean OOPE of ₹ 1239 per episode for all types (allopathic and AYUSH combined) of outpatient care.
Conclusions: Despite the policy support for the promotion of AYUSH by the Government of India for a long time, and the common knowledge about the affordability and low cost of AYUSH care, utilisation of AYUSH healthcare remains low. Evidence-based studies on the efficacy and safety of AYUSH treatment, promotion of cross-referral between different streams of medicine, and standardisation of AYUSH medicines can help to build trust and boost utilisation of AYUSH care.

How to cite this article:
Goyanka R, Yadav J, Kumar M, Sagar SK. Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure for AYUSH Outpatient Care among Older Adults in India. Chettinad Health City Med J. 2023;12(1):54-64.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/2278.2044.202310


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