Age and Gender-wise Distribution, Social History, and Length of Hospital Stay of Cardiovascular Patients with Drug-related Problems

  • Katike Mohammad Umar Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu, AP, India.
  • Chennuru Madhavi Latha Department of Pharmacology, Swathi College of Pharmacy, Nellore, Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu, AP, India.
Keywords: Drug-related Issues, Adverse Drug Reaction, Cardiovascular Diseases, Drug Interaction


Introduction: A patient’s quality of life, mortality, and morbidity are all impacted by drug-related problems. These problems can occur at any stage of the prescription, transcription, distribution, and administration of medications. Research into the frequency, manifestations, patterns, and treatment implications of drug-related problems in cardiovascular patients will advance, leading to a rise in patient safety and recovery.
Methods: A potential interventional trial was discussed over the course of 8 months in the cardiology and tertiary care medical departments. The required demographic and clinker data were acquired from the case files.

Results: In this study, 246 cardiovascular patients were enrolled, and 1567 drug-related problems (DRPs) were found, with reference to the inclusion and exclusion conditions.

Conclusion: In conclusion, population ageing and growth contribute to the global increase in CVD fatalities. Alcohol and tobacco use are linked to CVDs, with harmful effects observed at high consumption levels. Excessive alcohol and smoking increase blood pressure, cholesterol, and the risk of stroke and heart failure. However, moderate drinking poses minimal risks and may have some benefits. Efforts to reduce smoking and excessive drinking are essential for improving cardiovascular health and reducing CVD-related risks.

How to cite this article:
Umar KM, Latha CM. Age and Gender-wise Distribution, Social History, and Length of Hospital Stay of Cardiovascular Patients with Drug-related Problems. Chettinad Health City Med J. 2023;12(2):21-27.



M, Steffen HM. NAFLD and cardiovascular diseases: a clinical review. Clin Res Cardiol. 2021;110(7):921-37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Association AD. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of medical care in diabetes—2021. Diabetes Care. 2021;44(Suppl_1):S125-S50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Powell-Wiley TM, Poirier P, Burke LE, Després JP, Gordon-Larsen P, Lavie CJ, Lear SA, Ndumele CE, Neeland IJ, Sanders P, St-Onge MP; American Heart Association Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; and Stroke Council. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;143(21):e984-1010. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ding X, Wang X, Wu J, Zhang M, Cui M. Triglyceride–glucose index and the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021;20(1):76. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kadyrovich KN, Erkinovich SK, Ilhomovna KM. Microscopic examination of postcapillary cerebral venues in hemorrhagic stroke. Am J Med Sci Pharm Res. 2021;3(8):69-73. [Google Scholar]

Chae JS, Paik JK, Kang R, Kim M, Choi Y, Lee SH, Lee JH. Mild weight loss reduces inflammatory cytokines, leukocyte count, and oxidative stress in overweight and moderately obese participants treated for 3 years with dietary modification. Nutr Res. 2013;33(3):195-203. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ahn HY, Kim M, Chae JS, Ahn YT, Sim JH, Choi ID, Lee SH, Lee JH. Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241(2):649-56. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chae JS, Lee JH, Lee JH, Jang YS, Koh SJ. Effect of functional beverage on weight control and body fat mass in overweight women. J Appl Pharmacol. 2003;11(4):257-64. [Google Scholar]

Gaziano TA, Bitton A, Anand S, Abrahams-Gessel S, Murphy A. Growing epidemic of coronary heart disease in low-and middle-income countries. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2010;35(2):72-115. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Williams RG, Pearson GD, Barst RJ, Child JS, del Nido P, Gersony WM, Kuehl KS, Landzberg MJ, Myerson M, Neish SR, Sahn DJ, Verstappen A, Warnes CA, Webb CL; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Research in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(4):701-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Baumgartner H, Budts W, Chessa M, Deanfield J, Eicken A, Holm J, Iserin L, Meijboom F, Stein J, Szatmari A, Trindade PT, Walker F; Working Group on Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Recommendations for organization of care for adults with congenital heart disease and for training in the subspecialty of ‘Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease’ in Europe: a position paper of the Working Group on Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(11):686-90. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Vosbergen S, Mulder-Wiggers JM, Lacroix JP, Kemps HM, Kraaijenhagen RA, Jaspers MW, Peek N. Using personas to tailor educational messages to the preferences of coronary heart disease patients. J Biomed Inform. 2015;53:100-12. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ghisi GL, Chaves GS, Loures JB, Bonfim GM, Britto R. Validation of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of a short questionnaire to assess knowledge in cardiovascular disease patients (CADE-Q SV). Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018;111:841-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Bouchard C, Antunes-Correa LM, Ashley EA, Franklin N, Hwang PM, Mattsson CM, Negrao CE, Phillips SA, Sarzynski MA, Wang PY, Wheeler MT. Personalized preventive medicine: genetics and the response to regular exercise in preventive interventions. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;57(4):337-46. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low–glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA. 2004;292(20):2482-90. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Frediani JK, Bienvenida AF, Li J, Higgins MK, Lobelo F. Physical fitness and activity changes after a 24-week soccer-based adaptation of the US diabetes prevention program intervention in Hispanic men. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2020;63(6):775-85. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Irgens HU, Reisæter L, Irgens LM, Lie RT. Long term mortality of mothers and fathers after pre-eclampsia: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2001;323(7323):1213-7. [PubMed]

Loke YK, Brown JW, Kwok CS, Niruban A, Myint PK. Association of obstructive sleep apnea with risk of serious cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012;5(5):720-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Hill S, Spink J, Cadilhac D, Edwards A, Kaufman C, Rogers S, Ryan R, Tonkin A. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(1):108. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zhang PY, Xu X, Li XC. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(20):3091-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ahad HA, Haranath C, Vikas SS, Varam NJ, Ksheerasagare T, Gorantla SP. A review on enzyme activated drug delivery system. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021;14(1):516-22. [Google Scholar]

Ishaq BM, Reddy LS, Basha GM, Sreenivasulu M, Chetty CM, Ahad HA. Rapid and sensitive bioanalytical method development and validation for quantification of metoprolol using LC-MS/MS in human plasma. J Chem Soc Pak. 2020;42(6):171. [Google Scholar]

Ahad HA, Haranath C, Pradeepkumar B, Vinay C, Reddy CY, Sajid MS, Rao BG, Syed MA, Yusuf SM. Organ transplantation, pros, cons, and illustrations: a basic awareness to the public. Abasyn J Life Sci. 2021;4(1):168-74. [Google Scholar]

Haranath C, Jonnala R, Bhargav E, Ahad HA, Chintamaneni PK. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and its associated protein-9: drug delivery and therapeutic applications. J Young Pharm. 2022;14(3):268. [Google Scholar]

Targher G, Bertolini L, Padovani R, Rodella S, Zoppini G, Pichiri I, Sorgato C, Zenari L, Bonora E. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. J Hepatol. 2010;53(4):713-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Truesdale KP, Stevens J, Lewis CE, Schreiner PJ, Loria CM, Cai J. Changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease by baseline weight status in young adults who maintain or gain weight over 15 years: the CARDIA study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(9):1397-407. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Luengo-Fernandez R, Leal J, Gray A, Petersen S, Rayner M. Cost of cardiovascular diseases in the United Kingdom. Heart. 2006;92(10):1384-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Attar R, Valentin JB, Freeman P, Andell P, Aagaard J, Jensen SE. The effect of schizophrenia on major adverse cardiac events, length of hospital stay, and prevalence of somatic comorbidities following acute coronary syndrome. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2019;5(2):121-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Laurenti R, Buchalla CM, Caratin VS. Ischemic heart disease. Hospitalization, length of stay and expenses in Brazil from 1993 to 1997. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2000;74:483-92. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Li Z, Liu M, Wu Z, Liu Y, Li W, Liu M, Lv S, Yu S, Jiang Y, Gao B, Wang X, Li X, Wang W, Lin H, Guo X, Liu X. Association between ambient air pollution and hospital admissions, length of hospital stay and hospital cost for patients with cardiovascular diseases and comorbid diabetes mellitus: base on 1,969,755 cases in Beijing, China, 2014-2019. Environ Int. 2022;165:107301. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zwisler AD, Soja AM, Rasmussen S, Frederiksen M, Abadini S, Appel J, Rasmussen H, Gluud C, Iversen L, Sigurd B, Madsen M, Fischer-Hansen J; DANREHAB Group. Hospital-based comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care among patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease: 12-month results of a randomized clinical trial. Am Heart J. 2008;155(6):1106-13. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ahad HA, Haranath C, Rahamathulla S, Shaikshavali S, Ayesha S, Azmathulla S. Concoct children to combat the third wave of COVID-19. Asian J Res Chem. 2021;14(6):455-8. [Google Scholar]

Ahammed SG, Bhupalam P, Ahad HA, Chinthaginjala H, Rahamathulla S, Yadav S. Black fungus: a lethal communal issue after winning the life battle against COVID-19. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2021;14(4):2095-101. [Google Scholar]

Singh L, Ahad HA, Kumar BP, Madhusudhan V. A professional opinion on the Delta AY. 4.2 variant: a global threat to humanity. Res J Pharmacol Pharmacodyn. 2022;14(3):151-4. [Google Scholar]

Bhatt AS, Moscone A, McElrath EE, Varshney AS, Claggett BL, Bhatt DL, Januzzi JL, Butler J, Adler DS, Solomon SD, Vaduganathan M. Fewer hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;76(3):280-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Català A, Clavo-Escribano P, Riera-Monroig J, Martín-Ezquerra G, Fernandez-Gonzalez P, Revelles-Peñas L, Simon-Gozalbo A, Rodriguez-Cuadrado FJ, Castells VG, Gomar FJ, Comunion-Artieda A, Vega LF, Blanco JL, Puig S, Garcia-Minarro AM, Benito EF, Munoz-Santos C, Repiso-Jimenez JB, Llunell CL, Ceballos-Rodriguz C, Rodriguez VG, Fernandez JL, Sanchez-Gutierrez I, Calvo-Lopez R, Berna-Rico E, Nicolas-Ruanes B, Vicente FC, Vicente EJ, Fuente LF, RIera-Marti N, Descalzo-Gallego MA, Grau-Perez M, Garcia-Doval I, Fuertes I. Monkeypox outbreak in Spain: clinical and epidemiological findings in a prospective cross-sectional study of 185 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2022;187(5):765-72. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sallam M, Eid H, Awamleh N, Al-Tammemi AB, Barakat M, Athamneh RY, Hallit S, Harapan H, Mahafzah A. Conspiratorial attitude of the general public in Jordan towards emerging virus infections: a cross-sectional study amid the 2022 monkeypox outbreak. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2022;7(12):411. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kousar S, Ahad HA, Chinthaginjala H, Babafakruddin P, Lakunde J, Tarun K. Gas generating floating tablets: a quick literature review for the scholars. Asian J Res Chem. 2022;15(2):171-5. [Google Scholar]

Shabana, Shahid SU, Sarwar S. The abnormal lipid profile in obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Pakistani subjects. Lipids Health Dis. 2020;19(1):73. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jalali Z, Khademalhosseini M, Soltani N, Nadimi AE. Smoking, alcohol and opioids effect on coronary microcirculation: an update overview. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2021;21(1):185. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chilazi M, Duffy EY, Thakkar A, Michos ED. COVID and cardiovascular disease: what we know in 2021. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2021;23(7):37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]