A Brief Chronological Overview of Buccal Film Formulations

  • Dudekula Chand Basha Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • Bono Naga Sudha Department of Pharmaceutics, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Keywords: Buccal, Bioadhesive, Bioavailability, Evaluation, Film, Literature


The bioadhesive buccal film drug delivery technology that increases the safety, effectiveness, and stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients is the main focus of the current article. The buccal film is cutting-edge technology since it offers a better way to maximise treatment effectiveness. The medications that are used to increase bioavailability and have a high first-pass metabolism are ideal for this drug delivery strategy. Rolling, hot-melt extrusion, solid dispersion, solvent casting, or semi-solid casting can all be used to make Bioadhesive Buccal Films (BBF). The solvent casting method is the most popular of them. Organoleptic valuation, thickness, transparency, surface pH, moisture content, tensile strength, per cent elongation, folding endurance, swelling assets, drug content, and in vitro dissolution tests are a few of the mechanical assets that are assessed for the BBF. A small amount of material on earlier work on BBF has been provided in the article. This article will be useful for quick references to prior BBF attempts and guidance on how to assess them.

How to cite this article:
Basha DC, Sudha BN. A Brief Chronological Overview of Buccal Film Formulations. Chettinad Health City Med J. 2022;11(4):53-60.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/2278.2044.202241


Kiran RS, Karra G, Divya B, Rao TR. A mini review on buccal films an innovative dosage form. Int J Novel Res Dev. 2022;7(3):838-45. [Google Scholar]

Shirvan AR, Hemmatinejad N, Bahrami SH, Bashari A. A comparison between solvent casting and electrospinning methods for the fabrication of neem extract-containing buccal films. J Ind Text. 2022;51(1_suppl):311S-35S. [Google Scholar]

He S, Jacobsen J, Nielsen CU, Genina N, Østergaard J, Mu H. Exploration of in vitro drug release testing methods for saquinavir microenvironmental pH modifying buccal films. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2021;163:105867. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Diab M, Sallam AS, Hamdan I, Mansour R, Hussain R, Siligardi G, Qinna N, Khalil E. Characterization of insulin mucoadhesive buccal films spectroscopic analysis and in vivo evaluation. Symmetry. 2021;13(1):88. [Google Scholar]

Shaikh SS, Barrawaz A. Quality by design approach in the formulation of glibenclamide mucoadhesive buccal films. Analyt Chem Lett. 2021;11(4):497-511. [Google Scholar]

Uddin MN, Allon A, Roni MA, Kouzi S. Overview and future potential of fast dissolving buccal films as drug delivery system for vaccines. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2019;22:388-406. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Szekalska M, Wróblewska M, Trofimiuk M, Basa A, Winnicka K. Alginate oligosaccharides affect mechanical properties and antifungal activity of alginate buccal films with posaconazole. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(12):692. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tejada G, Lamas MC, Svetaz L, Salomón CJ, Alvarez VA, Leonardi D. Effect of drug incorporation technique and polymer combination on the performance of biopolymeric antifungal buccal films. Int J Pharm. 2018;548(1):431-42. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Alopaeus JF, Hellfritzsch M, Gutowski T, Scherlieb R, Almeida A, Sarmento B, Skalko-Basnet N, Tho I. Mucoadhesive buccal films based on a graft copolymer–amucin-retentive hydrogel scaffold. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2020;142:105142. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jillani U, Mudassir J, Arshad MS, Mehta P, Alyassin Y, Nazari K, Yousef B, Patel M, Zaman A, Sayed E, Chang MW, Ali A, Ahmad Z. Design and evaluation of agarose based buccal films containing zolmitriptan succinate application of physical and chemical enhancement approaches. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2022;69:103041. [Google Scholar]

Kumar JL, Abdul AH, ChinthaginjalaH, Shaik K, Dharani GH, Halima SS. Types of transdermal drug delivery systems: a literature report of the past decade. Indian J. 2022;14(2):157-62. [Google Scholar]

Mann G, Gurave PM, Kaul A, Kadiyala KG, Pokhriyal M, Srivastava RK, Kumar A, Datta A. Polymeric and electrospun patches for drug delivery through buccal route: formulation and biointerface evaluation. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2022;68:103030. [Google Scholar]

Webster LR, Cater J, Smith T. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine buccal film and orally-administered oxycodone in a respiratory study an analysis of secondary outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Pain Ther. 2022:11(3):817-25. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wang S, Gao Z, Liu L, Li M, Zuo A, Guo J. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan-sodium alginate-ethyl cellulose polyelectrolyte film as a novel buccal mucosal delivery vehicle. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2022;168:106085. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Pamlényi K, Kristó K, Sovány T, Regdon Jr G. Development and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal films based on sodium alginate for allergy therapy. Heliyon. 2022:8(8):e10364. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Abdella S, Afinjuomo F, Song Y, Upton R, Garg S. Mucoadhesive buccal film of estradiol for hormonal replacement therapy development and in-vivo performance prediction. Pharmaceutics. 2022;14(3):542. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Elkanayati RM, Chambliss WG, Omari S, Almutairi M, Repka MA, Ashour EA. Mucoadhesive buccal films for treatment of xerostomia prepared by coupling HME and 3D printing technologies. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2022;75:103660. [Google Scholar]

Pamlényi K, Regdon Jr G, Nemes D, Fenyvesi F, Bácskay I, Kristó K. Stability, permeability and cytotoxicity of buccal films in allergy treatment. Pharmaceutics. 2022;14(8):1633. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Bhupinder B, Sarita J. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual films of rizatriptan benzoate. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2012;4(1):133-43. [Google Scholar]

Lonakar GS, Mahajan MS, Ghosh SS, Sali JV. Modeling thin film formation by ultrasonic spray method a case of PEDOT: PSS thin films. Org Electro. 2012;13(11):2575-81. [Google Scholar]

Reddy JR, Muzib YI. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films of amiloride hydrochloride. J Glob Trend Pharm Sci. 2012;3(3):828-35. [Google Scholar]

Panchal MS, Patel H, Bagada A, Vadalia KR. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving film of ropinirole hydrochloride by using pullulan polymers. Int J Pharm Res Allied Sci. 2012;1(3):60-72. [Google Scholar]

Pandey AK, Choudhary N, Rai VK, Dwivedi H, Kymonil KM, Saraf SA. Fabrication and evaluation of tinidazole microbeads for colon targeting. Asia Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2:S197-S201. [Google Scholar]

Lien SY, Nautiyal A, Lee SJ. Optoelectronic properties of indium-tin oxide films deposited on flexible and transparent poly (dimethylsiloxane) substrate. Jpn J Appl Phys. 2013;52(11R):115801. [Google Scholar]

Rana P, Murthy RS. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films impregnated with carvedilol nanosuspension a potential approach for delivery of drugs having high first-pass metabolism. Drug Deliv. 2013;20(5):224-35. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Gope J, Kumar S, Sudhakar S, Lodhi K, Rauthan CM, Srivastava PC. Influence of argon dilution on the growth of amorphous to ultra nanocrystalline silicon films using VHF PECVD process. J Alloy Comp. 2013;577:710-6. [Google Scholar]

Sabar MH. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of fast dissolving film containing amlodipine besylate solid dispersion. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;5(4):419-28. [Google Scholar]

Roy AK, Kumar V, Basha SJ, Haque R, Karki R. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Valsartan. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2013;5(4). [Google Scholar]

Kumria R, Gupta V, Bansal S, Wadhwa J, Nair AB. Oral buccoadhesive films of ondansetron development and evaluation. Int J Pharm Investig. 2013;3(2):112. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Avachat AM, Gujar KN, Wagh KV. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;91(2):537-42. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Chandan CS, Chinnumol AV, Muhammed TK, Vipin KV, Augusthy AR. Development and characterisation of oral soft gel containing fluconazole usp for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci. 2014;4(4):985-93. [Google Scholar]

Al-Dhubiab BE, Nair AB, Kumria R, Attimarad M, Harsha S. Development and evaluation of buccal films impregnated with selegiline-loaded nanospheres. Drug Deliv. 2016;23(7):2154-62. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Preis M, Woertz C, Schneider K, Kukawka J, Broscheit J, Roewer N, Breitkreutz J. Design and evaluation of bilayered buccal film preparations for local administration of lidocaine hydrochloride. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2014;86(3):552-61. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

El-Maghraby GM, Abdelzaher MM. Formulation and evaluation of simvastatin buccal film. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2015;5(4):70-7. [Google Scholar]

Haque SE, Sheela A. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10(Suppl 1):199. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Patil NV, Netravali AN. Nonedible starch based “green” thermoset resin obtained via esterification using a green catalyst. ACS Sust Chem Eng. 2016;4(3):1756-64. [Google Scholar]

Khan S, Trivedi V, Boateng J. Functional physicochemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery. Int J Pharm. 2016;500(1-2):217-26. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Verma N, Verma A, Dubey J. Formulation and evaluation of chitosan containing mucoadhesive buccal patches of metoprolol succinate. J Drug Deliv Therap. 2016;6(2):14-20. [Google Scholar]

Trastullo R, Abruzzo A, Saladini B, Gallucci MC, Cerchiara T, Luppi B, Bigucci F. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016;105:115-21. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tayel SA, El Nabarawi MA, Amin MM, Abou Ghaly MH. Sumatriptan succinate sublingual fast dissolving thin films: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Pharm Dev Technol. 2016;21(3):328-37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Pekoz AY, Erdal MS, Okyar A, Ocak M, Tekeli F, Kaptan E, Sagirli O, Araman A. Preparation and in-vivo evaluation of dimenhydrinate buccal mucoadhesive films with enhanced bioavailability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016;42(6):916-25. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Salehi S, Boddohi S. New formulation and approach for mucoadhesive buccal film of rizatriptan benzoate. Prog Biomater. 2017;6(4):175-87. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Li XQ, Ye ZM, Wang JB, Fan CR, Pan AW, Li C, Zhang RB. [Mucoadhesive buccal films of tramadol for effective pain management]. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2017;67:231-7. Portugese. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ali MA, Sabati AM, Ali BA. Formulation and evaluation of baclofen mucoadhesive buccal films. Fabad J Pharm Sci. 2017;42(3):179-90. [Google Scholar]

Saha P, Das PS. Formulation development and evaluation of buccal patches of aceclofenac for gingivitis. Res J Pharm Dosag Form Tech. 2017;9(4):163-7. [Google Scholar]

Jhansipriya MV, Dinesh P, Ravikumar R, Yamini P, Sai KP, Hussain SP, Prasada RC. Chitosan based sustained release mucoadhesive buccal patches containing amlodipine besylate (AMB). Asian J Res Pharm Sci. 2017;7(2):97-104. [Google Scholar]

Çelik B. Risperidone mucoadhesive buccal tablets formulation design, optimization and evaluation. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017;11:3355. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Abruzzo A, Nicoletta FP, Dalena F, Cerchiara T, Luppi B, Bigucci F. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol. Int J Pharm. 2017;531(1):257-65. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zaman M, Hanif M, Shaheryar ZA. Development of tizanidine HCl-meloxicam loaded mucoadhesive buccal films in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194410. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ansari M, Sadarani B, Majumdar A. Optimization and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films loaded with resveratrol. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2018;44:278-88. [Google Scholar]

Nair AB, Al-Dhubiab BE, Shah J, Vimal P, Attirmarad M, Harsha S. Development and evaluation of palonosetron loaded mucoadhesive buccal films. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2018;47:351-8. [Google Scholar]

Adhikari SN, Panda S. Atenolol buccal patches: in vitroex vivo studies. J Pharm Adv Res. 2018;1(6):317-22. [Google Scholar]

Zhang C, Liu Y, Li W, Gao P, Xiang D, Ren X, Liu D. Mucoadhesive buccal film containing ornidazole and dexamethasone for oral ulcers in vitro and in vivo studies. Pharm Dev Technol. 2019;24(1):118-26. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Arifa BS, Sravya AH, Deepika BG, Manasa GN, Srujana M, Uma V, Lakshmi TS, Padmalatha K. Formulation and evaluation of fexofenadine buccal mucoadhesive patches. Res J Pharm Tech. 2018;11(11):4892-8. [Google Scholar]

Li AP, Alam N, Amaral K, Ho MC, Loretz C, Mitchell W, Yang Q. Cryopreserved human intestinal mucosal epithelium a novel in vitro experimental system for the evaluation of enteric drug metabolism, cytochrome P450 induction, and enterotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2018;46(11):1562-71. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Sneha R, Hari BN, Devi DR. Design of antiretroviral drug-polymeric nanoparticles laden buccal films for chronic HIV therapy in paediatrics. Collo Interf Sci Comm. 2018;27:49-59. [Google Scholar]

Fernandes FP, Fortes AC, Fonseca SG, Breitkreutz J, Ferraz HG. Manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films based on pectin and gellan gum containing triamcinolone acetonide. Int J Polym Sci. 2018;2018. [Google Scholar]

Begum SK, Sura RS, Phanindra B, Puram PK, Chandrasekhar, Naveen, Reshma. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of captopril. Res J Pharm Dosag Form Tech. 2019;11(3):164-8. [Google Scholar]

Salehi S, Boddohi S. Design and optimization of kollicoat® IR based mucoadhesive buccal film for co-delivery of rizatriptan benzoate and propranolol hydrochloride. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019;97:230-44. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Rogawski MA, Heller AH. Diazepam buccal film for the treatment of acute seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;101:106537. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zayed GM, Abd-El Rasoul S, Ibrahim MA, Saddik MS, Alshora DH. In vitro and in vivo characterization of domperidone-loaded fast dissolving buccal films. Saudi Pharm J. 2020;28(3):266-73. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Abouhussein D, El Nabarawi MA, Shalaby SH, Abd El-Bary A. Cetylpyridinium chloride chitosan blended mucoadhesive buccal films for treatment of pediatric oral diseases. J Drug Deliv Sci Tech. 2020;57:101676. [Google Scholar]

Sadique S, Ramya SS. Preparation and evaluation of fast dissolving oral film of losartan potassium. Res J Pharm Dosag Form Tech. 2020;12(1):13-6. [Google Scholar]

Reddy DM, Chetty CM, Reddy YD, Komali P, Divya BS, Rani SS. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving buccal patches of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Res J Pharm Tech. 2021;14(1):225-30. [Google Scholar]

Nair AB, Shah J, Jacob S, Al-Dhubiab BE, Patel V, Sreeharsha N, Shinu P. Development of mucoadhesive buccal film for rizatriptan in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Pharmaceutics. 2021;13(5):728. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Onishi H, Sakata O. Preparation and evaluation of fastdissolving films of etilefrine hydrochloride for practical buccal dosing. Pharm Dev Technol. 2021;26(5):610-16. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Mady OY, Abulmeaty MM, Donia AA, Al-Khureif AA, Al-Shoubki AA, Abudawood M, Moety DA. Formulation and bioavailability of novel mucoadhesive buccal films for candesartan cilexetil in rats. Membranes (Basel). 2021;11(9):659. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Gajdošová M, Vetchý D, Muselík J, Gajdziok J, Junca J, Vetcha M, Hauptman K, Jekl V. Bilayer mucoadhesive buccal films with prolonged release of ciclopirox olamine for the treatment of oral candidiasis in vitro development, ex vivo permeation testing, pharmacokinetic and efficacy study in rabbits. Int J Pharm. 2021;592:120086. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Maharjan M, Baby B, Sankhi S, Anusha BV, Shrestha S, Marasine NR. Development and optimisation of mucoadhesive films for enhanced drug delivery in treatment of lichen planus. Nepal J Health Sci. 2021;1(1):29-36. [Google Scholar]

Arpa MD, Ünükür MZ, ve Erim ÜC. Formulation, characterization and in vitro release studies of terbinafine hydrochloride loaded buccal films. J Res Pharm. 2021;25(5):667-80. [Google Scholar]

Mussa F, Mousi H, Treki M. The use of chitosan in the preparation of bioadhesive buccal films film-forming ability and sustaining ibuprofen release. Libyan Int Med Univ J. 2021;6(2):91-8. [Google Scholar]

Potaś J, Szymańska E, Wróblewska M, Kurowska I, Maciejczyk M, Basa A, Wolska E, Wilczewska AZ, Winnicka K. Multilayer films based on chitosan/pectin polyelectrolyte complexes as novel platforms for buccal administration of clotrimazole. Pharmceutics. 2021;13(10):1588. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jillani U, Mudassir J, Ijaz QA, Latif S, Qamar N, Aleem A, Ali E, Abbas K, Wazir MA, Hussain A, Abbas N, Arshad MS. Design and characterization of agarose/HPMC buccal films bearing ondansetron HCl in vitro and in vivo: enhancement using iontophoretic and chemical approaches. Biomed Res Int. 2022;2022:1662194. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kar K, Momin M, Joshi S, Kute C, Jaybhaye A. Formulation development and pharmacotechnical evaluation of mucoadhesive drug delivery system for oral candidiasis. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2015;6(3):1126-31. [Google Scholar]

Verma S, Tonk RK, Albratty M, Alhazmi HA, Najmi A, Kumar R, Kumar M, Taleuzzaman M, Swami G, Alam MS. Design and evaluation of sustained release mucoadhesive film of sumatriptan succinate containing grafted co-polymer as the platform. Saudi Pharm J. 2022;30(11):1527-37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kraisit P, Yonemochi E, Furuishi T, Mahadlek J, Limmatvapirat S. Chitosan film containing antifungal agent-loaded SLNs for the treatment of candidiasis using a Box-Behnken design. Carbohydr Polym. 2022;283:119178. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]