Depression during COVID-19 Pandemic in India: Findings from an Online Survey

  • Jugal Kishore Director Professor & Head of Department-Community Medicine, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
  • Tanu Anand Scientist D, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2911-2332
  • Heena Statistician, Department of Community Medicine, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
  • Tamanna Nazli Research Officer, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, MoAYUSH.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Psychosocial Impact, PHQ-9

Abstract

Introduction: Unpredictable evolution of COVID-19 pandemic has generated uncertainties in minds of people thereby impacting their mental health. Global evidence supports rising trend of symptoms of depression among general population during the pandemic.

Material and Method: It was a cross-sectional study conducted between April 15 and May 01, 2020. Data were collected using pre-structured questionnaire that was circulated through a web-based link via messages and mails. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.

Result: Out of the total 500 telephonic contacts who were sent the survey link, 478 had (95.6%) responded. There were 114 (23.8%), 64 (13.4%), 40 (8.4%) and 29 (6.1%) participants who were classified as having mild, moderate, moderately severe and severe depression respectively. Female gender, religion, education status, unemployment and professional occupation, income less than Rs. 20000 and more than Rs. 40000, ‘scare for coronavirus infection’ were found to be significantly associated with severity of depression (p<0.05). Adjusted analysis revealed that age was protective factor where as those who were scared from coronavirus infection were found to be two times more at risk of having symptoms of depression. Increasing family income was also associated with presence of depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: The proportion of participants with depressive symptoms was 51.7%. There is a need for assessing psychosocial impact of COVID-19 among populations and communities in varied settings over a long period of time.

How to cite this article:
Kishore J, Anand T, Heena, Nazli T. Depression during COVID-19 Pandemic in India: Findings from an Online Survey. Int J Preven Curat Comm Med 2020; 6(2): 16-21.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/2454.325X.202008

References

Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Mental Health and COVID-19 pandemic. NEJM 2020; Published Online April 13, 2020.

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017.

Li J, Yang Z, Qiu H et al. Anxiety and depression among general population in China at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic. World Psychiatry 2020; 19: 249-250.

Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatr 2020; 33: e100213.

Yuan S, Liao Z, Huang H et al. Comparison of the indicators of psychological stress in the population of

Hubei province and non-endemic provinces in China during two weeks during the coronavirus disease 2019

(COVID-19) outbreak in February 2020. Med Sci Monit 2020; 26: e923767.

González-Sanguino C, Ausín B, Castellanos MA et al. Mental health consequences during the initial stage of

the 2020 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) in Spain. Brain Behav Immun 2020; 87: 172-176.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage

of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ

Res Public Health 2020; 17: 1729.

Moreno C, Wykes T, Galderisi S et al. How mental health care should change as a consequence of the

COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiatry 2020; Published Online July 16, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S2215-

(20)30307-2.

Salari N, Hosseinian-Far A, Jalali R et al. Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general

population during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health 2020; 16: 57.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00589-w.

Murthy RS. National Mental Health Survey of India 2015-2016. Indian J Psychiatry 2017; 59(1): 21-26.

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_102_17.

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern

Med 2001; 16(9): 606-613. DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.

Liu D, Ren Y, Yan F, Li Y, Xu X, Yu X et al. Psychological Impact and Predisposing Factors of the Coronavirus

Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on General Public in China. 2020. Available at: https://ssrn.com/

abstract=3551415.

Wang Y, Di Y, Ye J, Wei W. Study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the

outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some regions of China. Psychol Health Med 2020; 30:

-10.

Moghanibashi-Mansourieh A. Assessing the anxiety level of Iranian general population during COVID-19

outbreak. Asian J Psychiatr 2020; 51: 102076.

Zhang Y, Ma ZF. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents

in Liaoning Province, China: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(7): 2381.

Zhou S-J, Zhang L-G, Wang L-L, Guo Z-C, Wang J-Q, Chen J-C et al. Prevalence and socio-demographic

correlates of psychological health problems in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Eur Child

Adolesc Psychiatry 2020; 29: 1-10.

Heena, Nazli T, Grover S, Kishore J. Covid 19 Pandemic and “Feeling Depressed”: An Online Survey. Epidem

Int 2020; 5(2): 27-31.

Published
2020-12-08