Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - Epidemiology, Detection and Management with Respect to the Indian Subcontinent - Current Updates and Theories

Coronavirus disease the Indian perspective – Current updates and theories

  • Pranav Sharma Radiology, Yale New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, CT, USA. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5141-7805
  • Roseleen K Bali Pulmonology and Critical Care, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India.
  • Harpreet Sawhney Radiology, Yale New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, CT, USA.
  • Darshan Gandhi Radiology, St Vincent’s Medical Center Hartford Healthcare, CT, USA.
  • Nargis K Bali Microbiology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, J&K, India.
Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Hydroxychloroquine, Peripheral Ground Glass Opacities, Remdesivir, RT-PCR

Abstract

The outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in mid-December 2019, from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and its spread across China and beyond has taken the world by surprise. On March 11, 2020 WHO (World Health Organization) declared it a global pandemic. Herein, we discuss the epidemiological trends, clinical and diagnostic findings, management, and investigative therapies of this disease and also reflect upon how it might be different in India from the rest of the world.

How to cite this article:
Sharma P, Bali RK, Sawhney H, Gandhi D, Bali NK. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - Epidemiology, Detection and Management with Respect to the Indian Subcontinent - Current Updates and Theories. J Commun Dis 2020; 52(2): 52-62.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24321/0019.5138.202019

Author Biographies

Roseleen K Bali, Pulmonology and Critical Care, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India.

Department od Pulmonology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine

Nargis K Bali, Microbiology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, J&K, India.

Assistant Professor Departmentof Microbiology

References

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 2020.

Udugama B, Kadhiresan P, Kozlowski HN et al. Diagnosing COVID-19: the disease and tools for detection. ACS

nano, 2020.

Liu W, Li H. COVID-19: Attacks the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin and captures the porphyrin to inhibit

human heme metabolism. 2020.

Gorbalenya AE. Severe acute respiratory syndromerelated coronavirus-The species and its viruses, a

statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. BioRxiv, 2020.

Enserink M. Update: A bit chaotic. Christening of new coronavirus and its disease name create confusion.

Science, 2020.

Dong E, Du H, Gardner L. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. The Lancet

Infectious Diseases, 2020.

Corona outbreaks in India. 2020. Available from: https://www.covid19india.org.

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly

reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2020.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19 (2020) Clinical characteristics

of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020.

Kim DD, Goel A. Estimating case fatality rates of COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2020.

COVID-19. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html.

Max R, Hannah R. Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Joe Hasell (2020) - Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). Retrieved

from: ‘https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus’.

Murthy S, Gomersall CD, Fowler RA. Care for critically ill patients with COVID-19. JAMA 2020.

WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (2019-nCoV) Situation report-52. 2020. Available from: https://www.

who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/20200312-sitrep-52-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=e2bfc9c0_2.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–

infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 2020.

Revised Guidelines on Clinical Management of COVID-19. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.

in/pdf/.RevisedNationalClinicalManagementGuidelineforCOVID1931032020.pdf.

Mission WC. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 507-513.

Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen Y et al. Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel

coronavirus pneumonia (COVID‐19) implicate special control measures. Journal of Medical Virology, 2020.

Danzi GB, Loffi M, Galeazzi G, et al. Acute pulmonary embolism and COVID-19 pneumonia: a random association? European Heart Journal 2020.

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W et al. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of

data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Medicine 2020.Sahasranaman A, Kumar N. Network structure of COVID-19 spread and the lacuna in India’s testing strategy. 2020.

Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA 2020.

Fang Y, Zhang H, Xie J, et al. Sensitivity of chest CT for COVID-19: comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology 2020.

World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in suspected

human cases: interim guidance. 2020.

Lamb LE, Bartolone SN, Ward E et al. Rapid detection of novel coronavirus (COVID19) by reverse transcription-

loop-mediated isothermal amplification. 2020.

Gootenberg JS, Abudayyeh OO, Kellner MJ et al. Multiplexed and portable nucleic acid detection platform

with Cas13, Cas12a, and Csm6. Science 2018; 360(6387): 439-444.

ID NOW COVID-19. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/media/136525/download.

Gollier C, Gossner O. Group testing against Covid-19. Available from: https://ideas.repec.org/p/crs/wpaper/

-02.html.

Wong HYF, Lam HYS, Fong AH et al. Frequency and distribution of chest radiographic findings in COVID-19

positive patients. Radiology, 2019.

Warren MA, Zhao Z, Koyama T et al. Severity scoring of lungs oedema on the chest radiograph is associated

with clinical outcomes in ARDS. Thorax 2018; 73(9): 840-846.

Li Y, Xia L. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of chest CT in diagnosis and management. American

Journal of Roentgenology 2020.

Pan F, Ye T, Sun P et al. Time course of lung changes on chest CT during recovery from 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Radiology 2020.

Kanne JP, Little BP, Chung JH et al. Essentials for radiologists on COVID-19: an update -radiology scientific

expert panel. Radiology 2020.

Raniga S, Sharma P, Kaur G et al. Interstitial Lung disease (Ild) in Rheumatoid arthritis (Ra) -a study of thirty

cases. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 2006; 16(4): 835.

Zhou S, Wang Y, Zhu T et al. CT features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in 62 patients

in Wuhan, China. American Journal of Roentgenology 2020; 1-8.

Simpson S, Kay FU, Abbara S et al. Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus statement on reporting chest CT findings related to COVID-19. Endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American

College of Radiology, and RSNA. Cardiothoracic Imaging - Radiology. 2020; 2(2): e200152.

Hosseiny M, Kooraki S, Gholamrezanezhad A et al. Radiology perspective of coronavirus disease 2019

(COVID-19): lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome. American

Journal of Roentgenology, 2020.

Sharma P, Kochar P, Sharma S et al. A case of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: role of interventional

radiology in diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Translational Medicine 2017; 5(17).

Bai HX, Hsieh B, Xiong Z et al. Performance of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia

on chest CT. Radiology, 2020.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance for preventing getting sick from 2019

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), cleaning and disinfection. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/

-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cleaning-disinfection.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.

cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fcleaning-disinfection.html. Reviewed March 28, 2020.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance for persons who may have 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) to prevent spread in homes and residential communities. Available from: https://www.

cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. Reviewed on April 13, 2020.

Lowe JJ, Paladino KD, Farke JD, et al. N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation

(UVGI) Process for Decontamination and Reuse Available from: https://www.nebraskamed.com/sites/

default/files/documents/covid-19/n-95-decon-process.pdf?date=03252020.

Holmdahl T, Walder M, Uzcátegui N, et al. Hydrogen peroxide vapor decontamination in a patient room

using feline calicivirus and murine norovirus as surrogate markers for human norovirus. Infect Control Hosp

Epidemiol 2016; 37: 561.

Duan SM, Zhao XS, Wen RF, et al. Stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and environment and

its sensitivity to heating and UV irradiation. Biomed Environ Sci 2003; 16: 246.

Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results

of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2020.

Dalerba P, Levin B, Thompson JL. A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in Covid-19. The New England Journal of

Medicine 2020; 382(21).

Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19-preliminary report. New

England Journal of Medicine 2020.

Villar J, Confalonieri M, Pastores SM, Meduri GU. Rationale for prolonged corticosteroid treatment in the acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirusdisease 2019. Critical Care Explorations 2020; 2(4).

Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug Discoveries &

Therapeutics 2020; 14(1): 58-60.

Xu X, Han M, Li T et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with Tocilizumab. ChinaXiv 2020;

(00026): v1.

Sahin AR, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM et al. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: a review of the

current literature. EJMO 2020; 4(1): 1-7.

Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F et al. Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma.

JAMA 2020.

Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG et al. The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2

in vitro. Antiviral Research 2020.

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Zhou S et al. An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in

human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice. Science Translational Medicine

; 12(541).

Chen WH, Strych U, Hotez PJ et al. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pipeline: An overview. Current Tropical Medicine

Reports, 2020.

Regenauer A. COVID-19 - CMO Update and Overview. 9th Edition. 2020. Available from: https://www.nature.

com/articles/d41573-020-00073-5.

Lurie N, Saville M, Hatchett R, et al. Developing Covid-19 vaccines at pandemic speed. New England Journal of

Medicine 2020.

Agrawal S, Goel AD, Gupta N. Emerging prophylaxis strategies against COVID-19. Monaldi Archives for

Chest Disease 2020; 90(1).

Indian Council of Medical Research. Advisory on the use of Hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis for ARSCoV2

infection. Accessed on 24 March 2020. Available from:https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Advisoryontheuseof-

HydroxychloroquinasprophylaxisforSARSCoV2infection.pdf.

Nicastri E, Petrosillo N, Bartoli TA et al. National Institute for the Infectious Diseases “L. Spallanzani”, IRCCS.

Recommendations for COVID-19 clinical management. Infectious Disease Reports 2020; 12(1).

Gage A, Higgins A, Lee R, et al. Reacquainting cardiology with mechanical ventilation in response to the

COVID-19 pandemic. 2020.

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, et al. Features, evaluation and treatment coronavirus (COVID-19). InStat-

Pearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2020.

Discharge Policy of nCoV Case. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Corona%20Discharge-Policy.

pdf.

Sardar R, Satish D, Birla S et al. Comparative analyses of SAR-CoV2 genomes from different geographical locations and other coronavirus family genomes reveals unique features potentially consequential to host-virus

interaction and pathogenesis. bioRxiv, 2020.

Shet A, Ray D, Malavige N et al. Differential COVID-19-attributable mortality and BCG vaccine use in countries.

medRxiv, 2020.

Miller A, Reandelar MJ, Fasciglione K, et al. Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced

morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study. medRxiv, 2020.

Singh BR, Gandharva R. Are BCG Vaccination, Population Density, Median Age and Poverty Important Determinants of COVID-19 Pandemic Spread, Morbidity and Mortality? Teaching Veterinary Epidemiology, 2020.

Hobday RA, Dancer SJ. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current

perspectives. Journal of Hospital Infection 2013; 84(4): 271-282.

Hobday RA. The influence of sunlight and ventilation on indoor health: infection control for the post-antibiotic era. 2020.

Giri PA, Yadav S, Parhar GS, et al. Frequency of ABO and rhesus blood groups: a study from a rural tertiary

care teaching hospital in India. Int J Biol Med Res 2011; 2(4): 988-980.

Dowd JB, Rotondi V, Adriano L et al. Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality

rates of COVID-19. medRxiv, 2020.

Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R et al. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. Journal of Infection 2020.

Published
2020-07-08